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Steve Joordens

Religion Exam Key Terms Hinduism Key Terms HINDUISM Sanatana - Eternal duty, religious and social obligations Dharma - New texts refer to it as dharma - Sanskrit word from Aryan origin; righteous and faith Tilak - Coloured dot on forehead, for married women and ritual conducting men - Signified battle between Saiva vs. Vaisna devotees; Tilaks differentiated between the two - Markings for birthplace, marital status, caste, occasion, and gender; represents role in society Bharata - Indigenous term for India - Originates from King Bharata (from Mahabharata) - Identified India before the British Rule; India came from British Karma - Means action, system of cause/effect spanning over lifetimes; punish/reward system of actions - Significant: implies continuing rebirths (SAMSARA); becomes idea of life adopted by non Hindus too - Good/bad actions that decide quality of life in rebirth; significant principle in Hindu religion Samsara - Endless cycle of suffering caused by birth/death/rebirth - Goes hand in hand with Karma; At time of death, karmic balance inherit by their next life - Motivates Hindus to obtain supreme wisdom to be liberated from the cycle Indus Valley - Discovered through 1926 excavation; existed between 300 and 1500 BCE Civilization - Harappa is the capital and Mohenjo Daro is a city there - Very complex and advanced civilization; own plumbing systems for each house - Home to a great bath; signifies that holy baths were given to gods/deities Mohenja- - One of two towns near banks of Indus River; means mound of dead Daro - Culture falls under Harappa civilization; more narrow of IV Civilization; uniformity in culture - Shows excellent architecture of Harrapa civilization/religious beliefs with procreation Harappa - Found in 1926 excavation; floods destroyed the cities - Culture similar in regards to architecture and beliefs in procreation/purity - Clues found signify that Hindu practices were displayed Aryans - Had beliefs of trilokam (three different realms, heaven, hell, earth) - Refers to Indo-European people who migrated to subcontinent - Language evolved into Sanskrit which significantly then became official Hinduism language Sanskrit - Derived from the Aryan language - Plays a significant role as the OFFICIAL language of Hinduism - Pre classical Sanskrit = vedic transcript; used as ceremonial language, and for rich poetry/literature Puranas - Stories of deities (old and ancient tales) - Proposed 5 Veda - Overshadowed by M/R Bhagavad - Extract from Mahabarata (holiest book in Hinduism); well known Gita - Krishna advises Arjuna on nature of human Soul/God and teaching liberation - It was Dharma to fight the enemies; mythical story Vedas - Collection of hymns/mantras (1500-600 BCE); Laws/teachings or duties enclosed in these writings - Significant because Hinduism referred to as Vedic Dharma: Religions of the Veda - Constitute oldest, most highly respected Hindu sacred literature - Divided into 4 sections: Samhitas (hymns), Brahmanas (ritual directions), Aranyakas (Forest Dweller Stage) , Upanishads (philosophical text) Upanishads - Philosophical texts; Reported conversations on theory of Vedic ritual and nature of knowledge - Emphasis on placating Gods through ritual success - Questioning and rejecting authoritarian structures; don’t reject early hymns, rethink and reformulate them Rig Veda - Collection of hymns; earliest section has 1028 hymns - Hymns of other Vedas borrow from Rig Veda - One of the four Vedas, and among world’s oldest texts Yajur Veda - Manual on how to conduct rituals - Hymns are borrowed from Rig Vedas; shows how the Vedas are intertwined - Sama Veda - Relationship between guru and student showcased here - Must be sung in a specific manner; from Rig Veda hymns Atharva - Incarnations to ward away evilness/illness ( remedies) Veda - Chants in book used for medical/healing purposes - Non Aryan Prana - Internal air current of the body; basic animating principle; sign of life (like Chi) - Central concept of Yoga; believed to flow through five networks: Nadis - Hindus believed Prana would leave you after death Atman - The human soul that is reborn to a new mother after death - Carries onto the next birth (affected by Karmic matter) - Indestructible part of a being, believed by Hindus Brahman - Spiritual universe essence; all deities come from him - Single source of all that is; pervades thoughts of human and universe itself - To achieve higher wisdom/liberation from samara, must known relation between Atman & Brahman Rita - Refers to running with the harmonious flow - Ever changing abstract principle - Hindu’s believe this idea governs the world Purusha - The primeval man was dismembered to create the world as a cosmic sacrifice - Entitled the Hymn of the Supreme Person - Used as hymns in domestic and temple rituals Laws of - Sage Manu who articulates etiquette/duties of each class and age group in Brahmin ruling society Manu - Played a significant role in Hinduism, as the new basis of laws after the Vedas - Written regarding righteousness, moral duty, and gave women less of a status Varna - Means class - Every class has own etiquette and duties outlined by Laws of Manu Jatis - Birth groups, translated as caste - Each caste has different practices (if violated you are exiled) - Hereditary/occupational groups that lead to quite a bit of unfair discrimination Types of Jatis - Brahmin: priests/pundits only they can TEACH religion, can study too - Ksatriya: warriors/rulers (their dharma is to protect country), can study religion - Vaisya: common people/merchants (wealth/economy), can study religion - Sudra: slaves/servants serving others Dharmasastr - Commentary on notion of dharma’ speaks of righteousness, moral values, laws a - Served as the foundation of later Hindu laws - Says that one’s birth place is an indication of the type of karma they attained Asramas - Four stages of life - Student: young boy spends time with Guru learning Vedas - Householder: man repays debts to society and forefathers, and gets married - Forest Dweller: goes to forest in search of liberation by leaving behind society - Sanyasi: the man now has children but leaves family behind and searches for enlightenment - Asramas are only for the upper 3 classes of castes; display of discrimination 4 Aims in Life - Artha: wealth, power in all forms (one of 3 Classical aims) - Kama: sensuous pleasure - Dharma: eternal duty, religious/social obligations, righteousness, faith, justice - Moksha: liberation from cycle of Samsara Yoga - Meditation; physical posture exercise and practice; 8 Steps: Hathyoga - Conscious union of one’s soul with the universal soul; provides an inspiration for devotees to do - Ultimate goal is to reach awareness that’s perfectly at one with and centered at the atman Samskaras - Rituals of life cycle/rites - Over 40 rituals from birth to student hood to marriage) Puja - Prayers/ritual household worship and homeage - Prayers/oil lamps/food/musical instruments/ clothes offered to deities - Built on assumption that humanity and divine must maintain an intimate connection Namaskara - Gestures of respect/salutation symbolic to Hindu religion - At Atman and great at other’s center - Sanskrit word Namas: to bow Prasads - Gift from the deity as remains from a puja - Literally means divine flavour - Priest as councellors:present food/gifts to god and then bless devotees Bhakthi - In practice it signifies active involvement by devotee in divine worship - Deities give grace to humanity in return for unselfish devotion - Became predominant ascetic practice of yoga for Hinduism until today Kali Yuga - Post Vedic era in 3102 BCE (lasts 432 000 years) - It is a period of degeneration - 10 avatar of Vishnu (Kalki) will emerge; good must be sacrificed to kill all evil Saiva - Followers of lord Siva - Chosen god who’s essence found in all creative energies - Linking creation/fertility/destruction together Vaishnava - Tradition whose focus is on Vishnu - Significant because the rivalry between Saivas and Vaishnavas raged on for long while Ishta Devata - Private Pujas by a bhakta to chosen deity - Those in Saiva/Vaishna traditions practice this - Performed for their personal favourite god; shows Hinduism’s polytheistic approach Ganesa - A chosen deity, son of Siva and has an elephant head Siva - Saves world repeatedly - Returns earth to resting stage - Essence in all creative energies; punishes humans too Vishnu - Theme of reincarnation: avatars - Multifaceted increases complexity of the many avatars - Underlies true reality Rama - 3 morals: obedience to parents, loyalty to brothers, kingship of Hinduism example - He is the hero of Ramayana Krishna - Offers counsel to save the world - Reality from all gods - Preaches to serve world according to one’s dharma Devi - Goddesses - Born of earth, bestow Earth’s wealth - Depict fertility, and creativity of Earth’s power Pativrata - Faithful wife - Dharma: worship/serve husband - Limitless power through fertility SIKHISM Sufism - Islamic mystical tradition - Hosted the important role of having a spiritual master - Sufism and 2 Hindu elements had everlasting influence on the Sants and through them, on Nanak Sant - Holy ascetic truth/saint Tradition - Bhakthi, Tantric Yoga, and Sufism attributed to the rise of Sant Tradition - Basis of development of Sikhism religion; had many poets too Sant Poets - Many influential poets - Believed divinity beyond all forms of description - Ascetic poetry rises; Kabir, Namdev, Ravidas ascetic poets Nanak - First guru, called Guru Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikh tradition - Primacy of message > messenger; god should be experienced not talked about - Agreed with reincarnation/karma but not polytheism/rituals of Hinduith Adi Granth - The original/primary scripts of Sikh Tradition created by Arjan, the 5 guru - There are three sections; prayers, ragas, epilogues - 900 hymns in the book created by Guru Nanak Sat Guru - Nanak referred to it as the fundamental divine reality - Defined as the True Teacher - Referred to by Nanak; because God should be experienced rather than talked about Om Kara - Divine One, True Teacher - Referred to by Nanak; because God should be experienced rather than talked about Mardana - Friend of Nanak, visited holy sites around India with him - Played musical accompaniment to Nanak’s singing in searching for disciples (Sikh) - Muslim and Hindu friends: developed Nanak’s philosophy that there’s no Hindu or Muslim Sikh - Disciples in Sanskrit - Name and title given to an adherent of Sikhism Angad - 2 Guru (1504-1552) and designated disciple by Nanak; refined Gurumukhi scripts - Institutionalized communal kitchen to feed disciples - Community meals: moral of eating together w/o caste issues rather than a ritual statement Amardas - 3 guru, developed religious observances/shrine tradition in the community (Diwali, Baisakhi) - Brought a political reform (22 Maji’s; seats of authority) - He reinstituted women significance(allowed them to remarry too) Ramdas - 4 Guru, founded a town and dug large reservoir called Amritsar; pool of nectar of immortality - Appointed son as successor; important precedent: all successors came from his family - Musicality of his hymns = emotional appeal and attracted audience th Arjan - 5 Guru, son of Ramdas, compiled the Adi Granth - Built the Golden Temple with a common bath (like the Indus Valley Civilization) - First ever Martyrdom; for supporting rebellion by Khusro th Hargobind - 6 Guru, son of Arjan, and brought a self defensive direction - Took up arms to defend against Mughal rage - Adopted the theme of wearing a sword (short little dagger) Harrai - 7 Guru, held court regularly to adjudicate in temple; arms struggle receded th Harikrishan - 8 Guru, arms struggle was receded Tegh - 9 Guru, wanted followers to be fearless Bahadur - Posed a direct challenge to the emperor, was executed for refusing to embrace Islam nd - 2 Martyrdom for freedom/worship in Sikh history Gobind Rai - Aka lion; inaugurated military order for men; Khalsa; also recruited by British for military - When the 9 Guru died, people concealed identity so Gobind Rai made Khalsa for recognition - He was a decisive factor in crystallization of Sikh Panth - He closed the Sikh canon Khalsa - A military order for all castes, promoting identity and strength - All males took the name of Singh and were pure - Order of loyal Sikhs bound by identity/discipline; must avoid intoxicants - Kes: uncut hair , Kangha: hair comb, Kachh: short trousers, Kirpan: sword, Kara: steel bracelet Gurdwaras - Daily prayer centers, charitable kitchens, social meeting places - People sit side by side in rows that are free of status, signifies equality JAINISM Ahimsa - Highest possible value = non violence; the essence of Jain tradition st - Strict vegetarian, don’t wear leather, 1 advocates of rights (starting with animals) - Commitment to nonviolence = radical non interference Shramanas - Strivers, new religious and philosophical groups rejecting basic claims of Vedic tradition - Liberation can be attained by humans of any caste through meditation - This philosophy gave way to birth of Jainism and Buddhism Karma (Jain) - Karma is material in nature with microscopic particles, attaches itself to your soul - Intentions behind each action, or w/o action determine the quality of karma - Leads to the transformative path to liberation (as said by Thirthankaras) Thirthankara - 24 fore finders transcended the ocean of samsara who found moksa from matter’s clutches s - They teach other how to attain enlightenment it is all laid out - They are significant in that they’re responsible for the religious teachings of Jain canons Moksha - Means liberation, salvation or emancipation of soul; state of complete detachment from world - One must attain this liberation by oneself without the help of god - This term signifies how it was very similar to Hinduism ideologies but Jains rejected it st Rsabha - 1 of Thirthankaras belonging to the House of the Sun - Existed before civilization, taught people about agriculture and life - Rsabha considered as reincarnation of Vishnu in Hinduism; Jains criticized for misinterpretation Mahavira - The GREAT HERO who is considered the primary reason for Jainism growth in India - Left his life as a prince to preach eternal truth/spiritual freedom and non violence - Asked disciples: not to take life, not to lie, not to steal, and not to own property Jina - Victors or conquerors - They taught the path to eternal happiness - Mahavira the most recent one; highest expression of Jaina ideal and focus of devotion Parsva - 872 BCE, came before Mahavira rd - The 23 Thirthankara Svatambaras - White clad: women were allowed to join and attain liberation: their body isn’t an obstacle - Believed that all beings have bodily demands; eats, sleeps, communicates - Abandoned concept of going nude and so wore white robe Digambara - Sky clad; conservative and took in literal Jain teachings - Practiced Nudity as form of liberation; women weren’t allowed to be nude = women can’t liberate - Nudity = refusal to give into demands of body comfort/private property - Omniscient = no need
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