Study Guides (248,595)
Canada (121,624)
Psychology (1,882)
PSYC36H3 (12)
Final

PSYC36 exam notes.docx

19 Pages
243 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC36H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek

This preview shows pages 1,2,3,4. Sign up to view the full 19 pages of the document.
Description
Lecture 7, 8, 9, 10, 11- Psychotherapy Final Exam Lecture 7- Mindfullness Based Therapies • Nonjudgmental/acceptance • Intentional focus • Present moment Mindfullness Vs. Mindlessness  Pointed practice vs. way of life vs. Meditation  Observing in a wordless way, on a focus object; sometimes observing your own body/breath, thoughts..  Most common practice is focusing on your breath-> pick a point of focus (some people focus on chest, or nostrils, etc)  Get in comfortable self-respecting position  Mindfulness as a way of life: whatever you‟re doing, wherever you are, you have the attention of mindfulness  How to bring mindfullness into the daily life  When you are mad at somebody, try finding out their facial expression  Meditation is a type of mindfulness: type of pointed practice (ex. Eating breakfast mindfully -> that‟s not meditation)  Meditation: focus on one thing Importance of Mindfulness • Increases focus and awareness • Calming/soothing effect • Better control over actions and decision-making • Helps identify thoughts and emotions: some people don’t know what they feel -> anger, sadness, fear? -> im gonna do drugs or drink to make it stop ; mindfullness helps them stop and pinpoint what’s going on • Present moment focus • Mindfullness will make you stop and think, and help you make a better decision Future focused: worries and anxious Present: neither of these things are in your mind; only focused on what the professor is teaching us; you can feel pain or be afraid This can help almost anybody • Functional contextualism: anything you do, makes sense in a certain context  ex. If a chair is broken, you’d say throw it out  We’d ask ‘is this a functional chair?’ if you had to make a practical joke, or wanted to break your leg so you wouldn’t have to go to work • Cognitive fusion: just because you think something you think it’s true >ex. Im so scared to go on the subway, therefore the subway is bad  Just because you love someone, doesn’t mean they’re good for you  Experiential avoidance: guesthouse. People do all sorts of things to avoid neagtive emotions, when really negative emotions are just physiolcay responses . If you accept anxiety it’ll come up and then go away  > people have an idea that you have to be happy all the time ACT Psychological Flexibility • Connect with present moment • Acceptance: thoughts and feeling as they are • Defusion: diffusing the importance of that thought; a thought is just a thought ad it’s not a big deal ; “thank you mind” -> to take away the cognitive fusion • Values: education is an important value, but instead the person is skipping school all the time and playing video games and smoking ; • Committed action: once a person sees their values, they can make some committed actions (goals) • > learning or nurting, or sucees set up your goals; something you live by  The creators of ACT took a break and re-created this therapy  Clearly defined therapy rationale  You see anything that’s maladaptive, you turn it into functionalism  In FC, we don’t call the wrist cutting person maladaptive  when you cut, it doesn’t make you scared anymore  Because ACT is acceprance, we don’t want to say anything is bad  ACT teaches you they are just thoughts; you need to let go of them Third wave approach • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) • Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) • Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) • Greatly reduces odds of recurrent major depressive episodes • Reduces anxiety • Reduces chronic pain: migranes, fobromylgia; chronic back pain • Decreases binge eating: bulimia • Increases relaxation • Reduces symptoms of borderline personality disorder With mindfulness, recurrence of depression goes down Acceptance • Willingness: to be out in the world • Curiosity: a kind curiosity about life • Embracing life • Theory that much of psychopathology stems from non-acceptance • Not resignation or agreement ACT • Functional contextualism • Comprehensive distancing • Cognitive Fusion
• Experiental avoidance
• Psychological flexibility Accepting the present moment ; not denying it Accept it as a state of mind or an attitude Acceptance is not an agreement ; you have to accept that it exists, before you can change it Ex. Racism: no one is racists anymore; it’s 2012, but are you going to chance racism?  Not that you agree with it but you have to see reality Psychopathology stems from non-existance > I shouldn’t have bad emotions; that’s why I have to quit school or take drugs, cause I don’t accept that I have negative emotions  Procrastination : you wanna get rid of anxiety IN THE MOMENT, but all that work is still there  He smokes marijuana 15 times a day because he doesn’t like nervousness  Maladaptive way Non-Acceptance • Willfullness • Frustration: when people are having a hard time accepting life • “It isn’t fair” • “It shouldn’t be this way” • Should-ing: everything is as it is ; how do you move forward now Suffering Ex. Getting a D on an exam  Or a traffic light  When we don’t accept the pain, we make it bigger and worse  Which means we’re turning pain into suffering Acceptance and Commitment Therapy • Radical behaviorism: theoretical, philosophical > You think of every single emotion, thoughts, physical happening as a behavior • Functional contextualism: anything you do, makes sense in a certain context  ex. If a chair is broken, you’d say throw it out  We’d ask ‘is this a functional chair?’ if you had to make a practical joke, or wanted to break your leg so you wouldn’t have to go to work • Cognitive fusion: just because you think something you think it’s true >ex. Im so scared to go on the subway, therefore the subway is bad  Just because you love someone, doesn’t mean they’re good for you • Experiential avoidance: guesthouse. People do all sorts of things to avoid negative emotions, when really negative emotions are just physiolcay responses . If you accept anxiety it’ll come up and then go away • > people have an idea that you have to be happy all the time  The creators of ACT took a break and re-created this therapy  Clearly defined therapy rationale  You see anything that’s maladaptive, you turn it into functionalism  In FC, we don’t call the wrist cutting person maladaptive  when you cut, it doesn’t make you scared anymore  Because ACT is acceprance, we don’t want to say anything is bad  ACT teaches you they are just thoughts; you need to let go of them ACT Psychological Flexibility • Connect with present moment • Acceptance: thoughts and feeling as they are • Defusion: diffusing the importance of that thought; a thought is just a thought ad it’s not a big deal ; “thank you mind” -> to take away the cognitive fusion • Values: education is an important value, but instead the person is skipping school all the time and playing video games and smoking ; • Committed action: once a person sees their values, they can make some committed actions (goals) • > learning or nurting, or sucees set up your goals; something you live by Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction • Jon Kabat-Zinn • 8-10 week programs in medical settings • Traditional meditation applied to psychogenic conditions • Based on the nature of human suffering • Fthe program focused on yoga, meditation, stretching, breathing, and cognitive fusion (sepratng yur thoughts) • How did this change pain -> highly influenced by your state of mind; by changing your focus, you can greatly reduce your pain MBSR Components • You only have moments to live • Mindfulness meditation (up to 45 minutes) • Body Scans • Yoga • Walking/sitting meditation • “Your suffering/pain is not YOU” • Addressing stressors > By radical acceptance, people were able to get a handle on their pain Really successful therapy! (book: Full catrasttophy living -> John Kabat ) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy • Adaptation of MBSR • Relapse prevention for depression ▫ Standard CT works, but most patients are treated with ADM • Began right here – Zindel Segal at CAMH • Decentering/distancing thoughts ▫ Allowing and accepting depressive thoughts  People with CBT have tend to stay better  No benefit of antidepressant medication  Most people at CAMH take antidepressent medication; they feel better and stop; then after a while they feel bad again  A lot of people who’ve already been depressed or anxious, you have a fear of being depressed again, so decentering/distracting thoughts help that MBCT • Normal sad thoughts trigger depressive schemas Suggested Readings • The Happiness Trap (Russ Harris) • Radical Acceptance (Tara Burch) • Wherever you go there you are (Jon Kabat-Zinn) • The Mindful Way Through Depression (Williams, Teasdale, Segal, Kabat- Zinn) Lecture 8- Dialectical Behaviour Therapy  Marsha Linehan  Treating woman with suicidality and self-harm (borderline personality disorder)  75% people with DBT are women > she told the media that she had BPD > Made her aggressive > Came from a place where she had a lot of experience > feeling of being out of control. Crazy, wanted to die  So she became a psychologist and created this therapy  Unstable identity -> doctor, rockstar, etc.  Inner personal disregulation : relationships are erratic -> black and white thinking (love them then hate them all of a sudden)  this is very hard for therapists to see  Main symptom is self-harm  Impulsive behaviours  It’d be difficult to have a therapeutic alliance  They have big issues with boundaries Start of DBT 1. Time constraints: CBT was too short 2. Therapy interfering behaviors were reinforced: ex. Touching or hugging the therapist 3. The focus on change in CBT is invalidating: your thoughts might be irrational -> so change and challenge those thoughts -> someone with BPD weren't reacting to this -> they found this invalidated • Martha started using CBT -> she was trying to treat women with this new efficacious scientifically based therapy • Even to this day, therapist will refuse people often, with BPD • They don’t want to deal with someone who is cutting themselves, etc. so they’d just tell them to go home • Instead of the behavior getting reduced, they were getting reinforced • CBT therapists were kind of held hostage Time Constraints  Individual therapy  Group therapy  Commitment for 1 year: generally it takes a year for people to get better  > you have to commit to doing it before starting  With teenagers it’s about 6 months  Consultation group: ‘therapy for therapists” attend.  Length of group therapy: 16 weeks  DBT can burn out Reinforcement and Punishment  Radical behaviorism: thoughts/feelings are behaviours. Everything has an antecedent and consequence (operant or classical conditioning)  Diary Card: a daily tracking device to pinpoint emotions and other behaviour  Chain analyses: all the things that led up to it, and all the things that followed it  Behaviours that the clients do with you should be reinforced or punished in a deliberate way  Using humor might have been reinforcing  You should NEVER give in to whatever it is the BPD person wants (ex. Letting the kid dye his hair purple after he cuts himself) Change is Invalidating  Validation  Validation communicates to another person that his or her feelings, thoughts, and actions make sense and are understandable to you in a particular situation.  Self-validation involves perceiving your own feelings, thoughts, and actions as accurate and acceptable in a particular situation.  “im so dumb because im angry. I shouldn’t be upset” -> but that’s not really validation  People with BPD have difficulty understanding emotion Radical behaviors and a focus on mindfulness DBT is a balance between acceptance and change We balance it with validation strategy You’re validating that you understand the emotion and that it is very real, but you don’t necessarily approve of the emotion/situation Biosocial Theory It is common for therapists using a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) model in the treatment of Borderline personality disorder to stress to clients that causes for their condition come both from a biological propensity to their emotional state, and an invalidating environment, that, by its negative reactions, reinforces their dysfunctional behavior. A traumatic event can start the emotional or interpersonal disregulation that spawns a vicious cycle of increased negative behavior as the person continues to react to the environment's invalidation and the environment increasingly devalues them (from Wikipedia)  Emotion Sensitivity: temperamental -> children are born with it (everyone is born with a trait level of emotion sensitivity  High in ES-> higher baseline in emotion affect (even when you‟re just sitting there doing nothing, you still feel emotion); you also have a higher peak (bigger reaction if you have a high ES)  Return to baseline: just a trait; not good or bad  Emotion Dysregulation: it has to be coupled with an invalidating environment. Some kids are told constantly that their emotions are wrong („you just ate, there‟s no way you‟re hungry; “it‟s okay that you dropped your icecream..forget about it”  Some people are really sensitive to this, so they grow up to be very confused about their own emotions  “if I scream and cry and pull my hair, I’d get my attention/help” -> to get attention, I need to get emotion level to 10  90% of BDP say they had childhood neglect Dialectics  Two things that seem like (or are) opposites can both be true.  Emphasis on holism and synthesis  “Both-and” vs. “Either-or”  Kind of philosophy  Black and white thinking  Dialectic theory teaches that someone is both bad and good at the same time  Brings you to a higher level Important DBT Dialectics  Acceptance/validation AND Change  You are doing the best you can AND You need to do better, try harder, and be more motivated to change.  need to be flexible  We always talk in dialectics; never in absolutes STAGES OF TREATMENT  Precommittment  Stage 1  Behavioral dyscontrol to behavioral control (learn all their skills)  Stage 2  Inhibited emotional experiencing to full emotional experience: when we do trauma work  (experiencing the emotions that go with the trauma)  Stage 3  Life worth living You don’t talk about any problems in this stage  Treatment Targets (Stage 1)  Decreasing life threatening behaviors  Decreasing therapy interfering behaviors  Improving quality of life  Practicing skills Group Therapy  Skills focused  Homework  Not a process group Mindfullness Review  What is mindfulness?: being focused in the present moment  Zen Buddhism  Basis for all skills States of Mind http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1621389/20090913/west_kanye.jhtml Emotion mind: you don’t have control over what you’re doing ; a lot of emotions Reason mind: no emotion; completely logical (working on just the facts) Dialectic between reason and emotion mind : experience emotion fully but also thinking logically Mindfullness Skills  What  Observe  Describe  Participate  How  Non-judgmental stance  One mindfulness  Effectively Distress Tolerance  How to make it through a crisis without making things worse  When problem solving doesn’t work  Self soothe  Pros and Cons: slow you down before you do that thing that’s gonna get you in trouble  distract, do something different until that urge goes away Radical Acceptance  Acceptance is acknowledging what is  Turning the mind  Willingness vs. Willfulness: open to the world Emotion Regulation  Understand the emotions experienced  Reduce vulnerability to painful emotions  Decrease emotional suffering Interpersonal Effectiveness  Objective effectiveness: what you want  Relationship effectiveness: how to make your relationships positive  Self-respect effecti
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3,4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit