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Final

psyc39 final exam notes 2012.docx

18 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC39H3
Professor
David Nussbaum

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Chapter 5: Juvenile Offending  Once a child is 12, they are assumed to be in sufficient control of their behavior  Juvenile Delinquents Act: recognize the special circumstances inherent with juvenile offenders; legislation applied to individuals between 7 and 16 (18 in some jurisdictions)  Criticism of juvenile delinquents act: denying youth of rights, right to appeal, legal representation, broad definition of delinquency that included acts that were not illegal for adults  Youth offenders act: 7 and 12 years old (and up to 18); possibility of transfer to adult court if 14 years old and up  Youth offenders act: allowed youth cases to be diverted; decision not to prosecute a young offender but rather have them undergo a community service program; young offender would have to plead guilty for diversion to be possible  Canada has the highest incarceration rate for youth in Western world, including U.S.  Youth criminal justice act replaced youth offenders act; 3 main objectives are to prevent youth crime, provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behavior, to improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth into the community  Extrajudicial measures: police giving a warning or making referral for treatment  Once juvenile is charged, they can no longer be transferred to adult court under the youth criminal justice act, rather, if a juvenile defendant is found guilty the judge can impose an adult sentence as long as the defendant is at least 14 years old  Most common sentence for juveniles was probation  Pattern has been found linking early onset of antisocial behavior to more serious and persistent antisocial behavior later in life  Adolescent-onset pattern occurs in about 70 percent of general population  Brame, Nagin and Tremblay: researchers found that the overall level of aggression decreased as the boys got older, regardless of how high it was when the participants when youngsters  Children who have an antisocial biological father are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior, even when raised apart from the father, suggesting that environment is not the only influence  Wadsworth: found that antisocial youth have slower heart rates than non-antisocial youth, suggesting a higher threshold for excitability and emotionality  Moffitt and Henry: found that antisocial youth have less frontal lobe inhibition than youth who do not engage in antisocial behavior  Conduct disordered behavior (likely to be present in childhood) that focuses on the thought processes that occur in social interactions; thought process  alternate responses to cues  response is chosen and performed  Conduct disordered youth demonstrate cognitive deficits and distortions, often attending to fewer cues and misattributing hostile intent to ambiguous situations, limited problem solving skills, producing few solutions to problems, solutions are aggressive in nature  Reactive aggression: emotionally aggressive response to a perceived threat or frustration  Proactive aggression: aggression directed at achieving a goal or receiving positive reinforcers  Reactively aggressive youth (earlier onset of problems) are likely to demonstrate deficiencies early in the cognitive process, such as focusing on only a few social cues; proactively aggressive youth likely to have deficiencies in generating alternate responses  Intergenerational aggression: one aggressive generation produces the next  Coercive family process model: aggressive behavior among youth develops from imitation of parents and reinforcement  Strongest predictor of juvenile offending is the presence of aggressive behavior before the age of 13  Child who has multiple risk factors but who can overcome them and prevail has been termed resilient  Carson and Butcher: intelligence and a commitment to education serve as protective factors for juveniles at risk for antisocial behavior  Strongest protective individual factor is having an intolerant attitude toward antisocial behavior  Males may be involved in more serious juvenile offending than females because of greater exposure to risk factors and lower exposure to protective factors  Internalizing problems: emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression  Externalizing problems: bullying, fighting, lying – this problem can develop into more persistent and serious antisocial acts, more difficult to treat, long term persistence  Males more likely to have externalizing difficulties than females (10:1)  To qualify for ADHD diagnosis, number of symptoms must be present, occur in two or more settings, persist for at least six months  ODD (oppositional defiant disorder): pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior  CD (conduct disorder): rights of others or basic social rules are violated; approx. 50% of children who meet the criteria for CD go on to receive diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood  Primary intervention strategies are implemented prior to any violence occurring with the goal of decreasing the likelihood that violence will occur later on. Secondary intervention strategies attempt to reduce the frequency of violence. Tertiary intervention strategies attempt to prevent violence from reoccurring  Primary intervention strategies: goal is to identify groups of children that have numerous risk factors for engaging in antisocial behavior later on  Incredible years parenting program: parents of high risk children tend to discontinue the training at rates that may exceed 50 percent  Secondary intervention strategies are directed at juveniles who have either had contact with the police or criminal justice system or have demonstrated behavioral problems at school  Many of the same approaches used in primary intervention strategies are used here. One of the main differences is the “target” (which children are involved in the program) rather than the content of the intervention; common secondary intervention strategies include diversion programs, family therapy, skills training  Diversion programs divert youth offenders from the juvenile justice system into community treatment programs. Belief is that justice system may cause more harm than good in reducing offending  Multisystemic therapy was not found to be more effective than typical services available in Ontario  Tertiary intervention strategies are aimed at juveniles who have engaged in criminal acts and who may have already been processed through formal court proceedings. As such, these intervention efforts are actually more “treatment” than prevention, recipients are often chronic and serious juvenile offenders  Shorter stays in institutional settings and greater involvement with community services are more effective for violent juveniles  More comprehensive and extensive programs should be directed toward life course persistent juveniles. School based prevention programs are more successful for adolescent limited juveniles Chapter 7: Violent Offending  Human aggression has been defined as any behavior directed towards another individual that is carried out with the immediate intent to cause harm, perpetrator must believe that the behavior will harm the target, and that the target is motivated to avoid the behavior  Violence defined as aggression that has extreme harm as its goal  Violent crime accounts for approx 1/8 criminal incidents in Canada  Most common reason given for not reporting crimes was that the victim dealt with the incident in another way, not important enough, did not want police involved  Men more likely to experience non sexual violence than women whereas women were more likely to experience sexual violence than men  Some characteristics associated with higher rates of violent victimization are being young, single, often going out in the evening, living in cities  Hostile aggression: impulsive reaction to some real or perceived threat (emotion  Instrumental aggression: premeditated and aimed at achieving some secondary goal (gain)  Social learning theory: aggression is more likely to occur when it is expected to be more rewarding than non aggressive alternatives; aggression does not require willing responsiveness from others for its success; behavior that is punishing for the victim can be rewarding for the aggressor  General aggression model: integration of a number of smaller, more specific theories of aggressive behavior; main components are inputs from the person and situation, the routes that mediate the influence of inputs, and appraisal and decision processes that lead to a particular action in the episode  Propose that most violent people fall in one of three groups: young men, competitively disadvantaged men, or psychopaths; adolescent and young men typically have relatively few resources and low status, which puts them at a competitive disadvantage  Adolescent and young men is the most common type of violent offender (as they move into adulthood and begin to acquire legitimately gained resources and status, the costs of violence begin to outweigh the benefits, so they switch from short term high risk strategies to more long term lower risk strategies)  This desistance with adulthood does not occur for the competitively disadvantaged men, their violent behavior is life course persistent; they have no ability or skills to achieve status and resources in prosocial ways, thereby they maintain their high risk approach  Psychopaths also life course persistent, not competitively disadvantaged but select short term high risk strategies as an alternate approach  Unstructured clinical judgment involves arriving at an estimate of risk based on the assessor’s own idiosyncratic decisions about what factors to consider and how to combine those factors, follow explicit rules about what factors to consider and how to combine those factors to arrive at a final estimate of risk  Empirical actuarial instrument: selection and combination of items are derived from their observed statistical relationship and recidivism and tables linking scores to expected recidivism rates are provided  Mechanical instrument: selection and combination of items are derived from theory or reviews of the empirical literature and no tables are provided  Structured professional judgment incorporates features of both unstructured clinical judgment and the actuarial approach; there are explicit guidelines for which factors to consider, but the combination of those factors is left up to the discretion of the assessor  Violence risk appraisal guide: empirical actuarial risk assessment instrument designed to estimate risk for violent recidivism: used in 618 patients at oak ridge, observed rate of violent recidivism was 31 percent  Scores on VRAG can range from -26 to +38, with higher scores indicating greater risk of violent recidivism; scores are grouped into nine risk categories, each containing seven points; inter-rater reliability of VRAG is very high (r=.90)  HCR-20 is a structured professional judgment instrument designed to assess risk for violence; historical, clinical and risk management items; each item scored on three point scale; high inter rater agreement  Self appraisal questionnaire: self report empirical actuarial risk assessment instrument developed to estimate risk of violent and non violent recidivism; despite concerns, evidence suggests that the SAQ can predict violent recidivism as well as more typical risk assessment instrument  True positive occurs when it is predicted that an offender will violently recidivate and they do so  True negative occurs when it is predicted that an offender will not violently recidivate and they don’t  SAQ and VRAG best predictors of violent recidivism  Elevated violence is associated with threat/control override psychotic symptoms, in which one feels that their self control is overridden by outside forces, or feels they will be harmed by others  Psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms do not predict violent recidivism; hallucinations and delusions important factors  Greater the number of principles to which programs adhered, the greater the observed reductions in violent recidivism  Treatments that follow the principles of effective corrections are associated with larger reductions in violent recidivism than treatments that do not follow these principles  Treatments that included moral training or empathy training were not significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism, whereas treatments that did not include these features were significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism  Treatments that were delivered by a psychologist not significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism, whereas treatments delivered by correctional or probation officers were significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism  Most conservative way to deal with attrition is to retain all offenders who had been assigned to treatment in analytic comparisons with the untreated groups: “intention to treat”  Remains unclear whether the lower rates of violent recidivism associated with treatment actually demonstrate the treatment is effective or are more attributed to methodological short comings  Highest homicide rates in 2007 were in Nunavut  Although homicides have decreased, proportion of homicides that are gang related has been increasing over past decade  Most common method used in homicides: shooting, stabbing, beating  Multiple murder: killing 3 or more victims: divided into mass murder, spree murder and serial murder  Mass murder occurs in a single location with no cooling off period between murders  Spree murder is also characterized by no cooling off period between murders but murders occur at two or more locations; often occurs in the context of another crime  Like mass and spree murders, serial murder (Robert Pickton) involves three or more victims but differs from other multiple murders in that there is a cooling off period between murders and the murders usually occur in different locations  Visionary killer: psychotic and suffers from severe break with reality; inner voice commands he/she kill  Mission oriented serial murderer: not psychotic, takes upon himself the task of ridding the world or the community of a group of people that he considers to be undesirable (gays, catholics) 2 subtypes: demon mandated and god mandated  Hedonistic serialist: lust, thrill, comfort  Lust: gross acts of necrophilia may accompany process kill  Thrill: victim must be alive so the killer can feed off the terror the victim is experiencing  Comfort: anticipated gains that are materialistic: money, business  Power/control killer: desires the total capture of the victim and wants to hold the fate of the victim in his hands Chapter 8: Family violence  Ecological model of family violence: focuses on the relationship between multiple levels of influence in understanding family violence including individual, relationship community, and societal factors  Violence against women was more likely to be reported to the policy than was violence against men  Conflict tactics scale assesses how a person and their partner resolve conflict; consists of 18 items  United states and Canada had relatively high rates of sexual coercion as compared to other countries  Spousal violence most common in Nunavut, pei, lowest rate in BC  Minority women were more likely than Caucasian women to report spousal violence  Across all countries, most widely accepted justification for violence was female infidelity  Patriarchal theory assumes a long standing set of cultural beliefs and values that support the idea that the male dominance of women contributes to the domestic assault of women by men  Patriarchal theory is challenging to evaluate because it is hard to show a causal link between patriarchal attitudes and intimate violence; criticized because it provides an incomplete explanation of intimate violence and cannot predict which individuals will engage in it  Social learning theory: how individuals acquire new behaviors, especially aggression  Observational learning could occur in 3 contexts: family of origin, subculture in which a person lives, and the media  Men who engaged in intimate violence are more likely to have witnessed parental violence than men who do not engage in intimate violence  Bandura argues that for a behavior to be acquired, it must have functional values for the observer  Aversive instigators are stimuli that the individual attempts to avoid; produce emotional arousal and how a person labels that emotional arousal will affect how they react; male batterers have a predisposition to interpret a wide variety of emotional states as anger “emotional funnel system”  Incentive instigators are stimuli that are perceived as rewards for engaging in aggression  Regulators: self punishment (conscience) and external punishment. External punishments are exogenous forms of punishment, such as when a person is arrested for engaging in violence  According to social learning theory, the likelihood of intimate violence should be reduced if the consequences for violence are exceeded by incentives for engaging in non violent behavior and if alternatives are provided to attenuate the effect of any instigators  Slightly higher percentage of women engage in minor violence and that equal rates of serious violence occur for men and women  Major factor for why such a low percentage of women are found guilty was that the male victim was not willing to testify  Family-only batterer: engage in the lowest levels of intimate violence, infrequently violent outside the home and rarely engages in other criminal acts, aggression triggered by stress, doesn’t show much psychopathy  Generally violent/antisocial batterer: engages in moderate to high levels of intimate violence, frequently violent outside the home and engages in other criminal acts, has substance abuse problems, attachment style best described as dismissive  Dysphoric-borderline batterer: engages in moderate to severe levels of intimate violence, usually focuses violence on female partners, high rates of mood disorders, borderline personality features, attachment style best described as preoccupied  50% family only type, 30% generally violent/antisocial type, 20% dysphoric-borderline  Low risk non pathological, who engages in family only violence; passive aggressive dependent type with attachment and psychopathological problems; antisocial type, who engages in high levels of violence in and outside the home  Most helpful: subsidized day care, religious counseling, subsidized housing  Young age and low income have consistently been found to be associated with an increased likelihood of a man committing physical violence against a partner  Domestic violence risk appraisal guide: empirically derived 14 item measure designed to predict spousal assault recidivism in male spousal assault of offender; scores range from - 10 - +41  Spousal assault risk assessment: assess the risk for spousal assault in male offenders; uses structured professional judgment approach to risk assessment and was developed by a group of researchers in BC; consists of 20 risk factors  DVRAG and VRAG most accurate  Duluth domestic abuse intervention project: prevent future violence; focuses on men’s use of power and control; focuses on changing patriarchal beliefs  Criticism of Duluth model is that it is incompatible with progressive social theory and policy  Correctional service of Canada’s family violence prevention program: longer high intensity program designed to target offenders who are at high risk to engage in future intimate violence  Increase in child abuse - most common type of child abuse was neglect; only decrease in rates was for sexual abuse  Likely that the treatment reflect a change in awareness on the part of both professionals and the public of the serious impact of these forms of maltreatment  No sex difference from birth to age ; males being victimized more often among 8 to 11 year olds and females between 12 and 15 years old  Sexual abuse most often committed by a non parental relative or child’s friend  Children most likely to be removed from home if they are neglected (23%) as compared to the 15% who are removed for experiencing physical abuse  Child abuse and witnessing domestic violence often co-occur; risk for abuse was up to nine times higher in homes in which parents physically fought as compared to homes where there were no physical violence  “Double whammy” used to describe the worse outcomes for children who experience both abuse and exposure to domestic violence  Average age of disclosure of child incest was 26  Delayed disclosure was very common, with approx half the children who had been raped waiting more than five years before disclosing the abuse  Family factors related to child abuse and exposure to violence include unemployment, substance abuse, mental illness  Environmental abuse factors include poverty, community disadvantage, and being exposed to violence outside the home  Strongest environmental factor that has been related to child abuse is poverty  Some studies have found that boys who experience abuse are more prone to externalizing behaviors such as aggression whereas girls are more likely to exhibit internalizing behaviors such as anxiety  Child protective characteristics include internal locus of control, high intelligence, positive self image, belief that they want to be different from their partners  Elder maltreatment has been called the “forgotten area of family violence”  First reference to elder abuse called “granny battering”  Statistics Canada reports that seniors were the least likely age group to experience family violence; senior victims were most likely to be victimized by an adult child or current spouse  Screening tests “double edged sword” sometimes used clumsily by the well intended  Risk factors for elder abuse: caregiver stress, social isolation of the victim, frailty of the victim, functional disability, cognitive impairment  Mistreatment related to mortality, 40 percent of the not abused still alive, compared to 9 percent of those who had been physically abused/neglected  Laws that protect elders from abuse: family violence laws, criminal laws, adult protection laws, adult guardianship laws  Adult protection law: help cases of abuse or neglect that come to the attention of the authorities  Adult guardianship law: provide protection to adults who are mentally incapable of protecting or providing for themselves; these laws can be used whether or not abuse is occurring Chapter 9: Sexual offenders  Victim’s reasons for not reporting sexual assault incidents to the police most commonly included: “felt it was not important enough”  Uniform crime reporting: incidence of crimes reported to police in a given year and some of the characteristics of those crimes, includes offences against victims of all ages and includes territories as well as provinces (unlike GSS)  UCR also tracks clearance rates – laying charges or otherwise resolving reported offences  Over 1/3 of sexual offenses were not cleared by police, whereas only 26 percent of other violent offences were not cleared  Convictions for sexual offences (54%) were more likely to result in custodial sentencing than other violent offences (30%)  No evidence that sexual offending is on the rise  Children most often victimized by family members, whereas adolescents and adults are most often victimized by friends  Pedophilia comes from Greek words pedeiktos (young children) and philia (love)  Paraphilias: “recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors generally involving 1) non human objects 2) suffering of oneself
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