PSYC62_lec 1.docx

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Suzanne Erb

PSYC62: Lecture 1 Course uses intranet Writing assignment can be in a group of 2-3 students Exams cover lecture and text material Midterm held in class time Defining pharmacology and psychopharmacology  Pharmacology: study of drugs and how body reacts to drugs and what sources of drugs are, what nature(chemical structure) is, what they’re properties are, what are the different ways they interact with their receptors to have their effects and how they move through the body and to exert their effects o How they act on diff biological systems and how they act on them to have effects on behavior  Called pharmacal kinetics  Not to be confused with pharmacy  Pharmacy is an applied medical science  How drugs are safely used and administered  Pharmacology is a component of pharmacy  Psychopharmacology – subdiscipline of pharmacology o Drugs that have primary pharmacological effects via interactions of nervous tissue with interactions of receptors in the brain (nerve cells) (interactions – psychoactive drugs) o Recreational drugs and drugs used for alleviations with symptoms of various disorders (anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and addiction) o Psychoactive drugs – drugs that exert primary pharmacological effects via interactions in brain interact with non-nervous tissue as well, but primarily concerned with chemical reactions with drugs in brain o How drugs affect behavior and mental states Defining Drug  Drug means different things in diff contexts (medicine vs government regulations)  Drdinitions 1 and 2 describe drugs used for disimal purposes/recreational  3 definition is still non-inclusive as it doesn’t include drugs not used for recreational uses  Last definition is not perfect but gets at non-recreational and recreational use of drugs o Not all substances that affect bodily functions and mental states would be drugs o Examples include food, salt, minerals, nutrients, vitamins o At certain doses vitamins may be considered as a substance in certain contexts  Grilly definition o Any endogenous chemical can affect bodily functions made within body, brain o Not drugs  Hormones, minerals can affect bodily functions and biological systems  Endogenous chemicals extracted and synthesized and administered in purified form to reverse neurological deficits – considered as drugs  Insulin can be used as a treatment for diabetes  l dopa a precursor of dopamine involved in movement and motivation in symptoms associated with parkinson’s disease  molecular config of dopamine precursor  hypothyroidism  Definitions are still pretty inclusive  Last definition encompasses recreational and medicinal drugs o Deliberate and purposeful administration foa substance to alter biological function Psychoactive Drugs  Chemicals that largely mimic effects of endogenous chemicals naturally produced in brain outside of normal physiological range A Historical Perspective  Plants contain psychoactive substances that produce hallucinatory, mystic and delusionary states  Today we’re studying more potent drugs from these plants although others have been used in the past  Using more potent drugs today for recreational purposes is more dangerous than before  Recreational/religious settings o Cocaine – 3000 B.C south American indians chewed coca leaves with cocaine in it to eliminate fatigue, reduce hunger, elevate mood o Opium – derived from poppy plant (morphine and codeine) used 7000 years ago for analgesic effects o Alcohol o Marijuana – alleviate medical illnesses for many centuries  Early usages of drugs in pharmacotherapy o Ether – early anesthetic o LSD-psychopharmacology revolution o Barbiturates are recent th  No real effort in studying influence of drugs on cognition emotion and behavior until mid 20 century o psychoPharmacological revolution o Chlorpromazine or thorazine (trade name) reduced symptoms of schizophrenia without sedating the patient, which other drugs previously did o Chlorpromazine was able to target specific core symptoms of schizophrenia without knocking the person out validated idea that mental illness could be linked to abnormailties in brain function and biochemistry and not just a product of environmental conditions o New conceptualization of mental illness and that it could be treated with targeted pharmacotherapies Lithium  Recognized in 1870s for mood stabilizing effects  Not recognized for effects in psychotic patients until 1849  Initially thought to be too toxic, so chlorpromazine was considered to be safer and faster- acting at that time  Later lithium became drug of choice in addressing mood disorders LSD – 1950s  Used to treat a lot of disorders  Alcoholism, anxiety, sexual dysfunction  Induces psychosis (paradox)  Chlorpromazine can block effects of psychosis, LSD was approved as a research drug in which chlorpromazine was used as a psychosis inducing trigger that one can study then study the effect of chlorpromazine on  LSD induced psychosis is Different from naturally occurring psychosis  Psychotic state LSD induced lead to experimentation with the drug  LSD may have significant abuse liability  LSD Only contributed to psychopharmacology revolution minorly No longer considered to have any approved medical uses Stringent drug? Recreational and Social drug Use Alter emotional and cognitive abilities  Non-illicit : alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, oxycontin with prescription would be illicit  Illicit recreational: heroin, marijuana, cocaine  Table 1.1 doesn’t reflect anything on dependence or addiction  Illicit drug use is prevalent in society  46.1% almost half has experimented with illicit drug in a lifetime, past year 14.4 and past month 8%  Marijuana and hashish most common, less to cocaine, less to heroin and hallucinogens  Experimentation is prevalent in our society Common Drug Classification Strategies New Drug Development  Where do they come from, where are they found, what are the ways they are discovered, how do they become marketed or not?  Natural resources o Rich in microbes that have disease fighting properties o Penicilen o Pain killers o Technology allows us to see that bacteria and species of the sea produce compounds that can kill cancer cells, fight swelling and inflammation  Biochemical synthesis o New knowledge of neurotransmitters in the brain o Recepto
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