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PSYC62 DRUGS AND THE BRAIN midterm 1 ch. 1, 2, and 3.5-3.docx

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PSYC62 DRUGS AND THE BRAIN: MIDTERM 1 NOTES CH. 1-3.5 CHAPTER 1: introduction to Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology: study how drugs affect mood, perception, thinking, behaviour Psychoactive drugs: affect mood, perception, thinking, behaviour Pharmacotheraputics: psychoactive treatments for disorders Drugadministerd substance tht alters psyological functioning Grey area because by this definition food is technically a drug 2 categories of drug use- instrumental (use it for intended purpose) or recreational (use it just to feel the high) Abuse: drug use that causes harm to self or others Dependence: is abuse accompanied by withdrawl and/or tolerance GENEREC NAMES, TRADE NAMES STREET NAMES Generic name: says drugs chemical makeup (acetomidiphine) Trade name: for purpose of marketing (teylanol) Street name: nick name on the street DRUG EFFECTS: DETERMINED BY DOSE Effect depends on dose Dose: ratio of drug to organism’s body weight Dose effect curve: figure 1.2 –generaly higher dose= higher effect ED50 value: dose at which 50% of dose was observed Potency: amount of drug used to produce an effect Lethal dose: how much of the drug is nessisary to kill someone (also called TD-toxic dose) LD50: point when 50% OF PEOPLE DIE Therapeutic index: LD50 divided by ED50 LD1= lethal dose that caused only 1 percent of subjects to die LD1/ED99 is a more conservative way of calculating therapeutic index that is usedfor most drugs that are FDA approved FDA= the U.S. food and drug administration Pharmacodynamics: how drugs affect biological actions Pharmacokinetics: how they pass thru the body Pharmacogenetics: how genetic variance affects the way individuals respond to drug OBJECTIVE VS. SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS Figure 1.4 gives example Objective: can be agreed upon by more than 1 person Subjective: the point of view of one person Figuring out how a drug has subjective effects is important because only the person taking the drug can say for example if their depression is getting better or not. RESEARCH DESIGN •Dependent vs independent variables • IV gets manipulated and DV gets measured • Correla5onal vs Experimental Correlational: no alteration of study conditions, relations are inferred from the changes of 2 variables simultaneously • Biggest diff between correlation and experiment is the ability to show causality, correlational is not causal, experimental is causal Experimental=closer approximation to causality • Placebo Treatment arms: number of treatments and doses provided to patients describes in a clinical study • In the real world, researchers require more than just a treatment vs. placebo design, they would use 3 or 4 treatment arms where they have high and low dose conditions etc… Clinical study reports: detailed summaries of a clinical study’s design and results • Single-‐blind procedure The doctor knows which patient is getting the drug and the patient doesn’t know • Double-‐blind procedure Both the doctor and patient doesn’t know whos getting the actuall drug Why? Limits bias effects • Open-‐label studies When the patient knows what they are taking Some high risk populations (cancer patients) it would be unethical for the patient to not be aware of what they are or are not taking. ADDRESSING THE QUALITY AND IMPACT OF AN EXPERIMENT Table 1.4 explains the definitions of the different types of validity Internal validity External validity Face validity Construct validity Predictive validity Confound variables: factors that are affecting your DV that have not been accounted for in the study design Teratogens: substances harmful to the fetus Thalidomide is an example of this, it was used to prevent vomiting and morning sickness. In animal research with mice, it didn’t effect the fetus, but when they gave it to humans, the fetus was born without limbs because in humans, the drug was broken down into a harmful chemical that was diff from the metabolic process in mice. ANIMALS AND ADVANCING MEDICAL RESEARCH Medical research relies hevily on animal research FDA required proof of extensicve animal research data before approving clinical trials with humans 3 major reasons why it relies on animal research: • Lack of alternitives • High predictive value for the drug’s effects in humans • Assessing drugs in carefully controlled laboratory environments is only possible with animals (human studies have a lot of confounding variables ie. Each person comes from different environmental backgrounds and different genes etc THERAPUTIC DRUG DEVELOPMENT First, they have to choose which disorder to treat Based on how prevalent the disorder is Rare disorders are often incurable not because they cant find a cure but because the research doesn’t get funded to cure it since its such a rare disease, they cant make money off of it , Table 1.5 shows stages of therapeutic drug development Identification of disorder to treat Drug synthesis Biological experimentation Refining screening methods Safety pharmacology Clinical trials CHAPTER 2: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurons Glia Dendrites Each neuron has the regular organells of any other somatic cell o Nucleus contains DNa o Plasma membrane separates organells o Endoplasmic reticulum is where protiens and other things are transported within the cell o Mitochondrion is the energy source of the cell • Recetors are protiens embedded in the membrane of the neuron Receptive area: the more dendrites a neuron has, the larger its receptive area Receives more info from other cells Axon- propagates the action potential Axon hillock is where the AP starts Interneuron, sensory neuron, motor neuron : figure 2.3 shows the physical differences between the types of neurons GLIA CELLS Facilitate nervous systemfunctioning Myelination: insulating the axon Oligodendrocytes: myleinate the CNS neurons Shwann cellS: meylinate the PNS neurons Astrocytes: part of forming blood brain barrier, respond to brain injury, also facilitates termination of neurotransmitters at the synapse Gliosis: the swelling of glial cells in response to injury Review table 2.1 for a review of the anatomical directional terms THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic nervous system: responsible for voluntary behaviour Autonomic nervous system: involuntary responces Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: rest and digest Motor neurons: efferent Sensory neurons: afferent CNS: brain and spinal cord-more protection than PNS PNS: everything else Epinephrine: sympathetic-> activating ACH: parasympathetic-> deactivating Figure 2.8 shows the dividions of the CNS Spinal cord Hindbrain Cerebellum: balance and timing of movement Pons: startle reflexes Medulla: controls autonomic nervous system, continuous with spinal cord Controls vital functions:breathing, heart rate, vomiting Narcotics supress medullary functions that’s why they can be so lethal Midbrain Forebrain dicephalon Hypothalamus: motivating behaviour, sex drive, body temp and sleep and controls pituitary gland Thalamus Pineal gland secretes melatonin Basal ganglia Cerebral cortex Limbic system : forms a ring around the thalamus and hypothalamus, participates in memory and emotion (learning). The structures in the limbic system are not absolute, some scientists include some structures that others don’t. Cingulate gyrus Thalamus Hypothalamus Mammillary bodies Hippocampus Amygdala Olfactory bulb Anterior thalamic nuclei Septal nuclei Parahippocampal gyrus (limbic lobe) Figure 2.12 is a good diagram explaining the general function of all the main brain areas. Basal ganglia: aids the stabalization of movement + Substantia nigra: aids in regulatory activity of basal ganglia (dopamine production) + Thalamus = Stabalize voluntary movement The initiation of movement: • After all the sensory info is processed, it integrates in the prefrontal cortex • The prefrontal cortex selects the goal that needs to be achieved (initiates the plans) • Premotor cortex selects the movements that are required to achieve the goal • primary motor cortex sends out the information to the body to activate those movements via pyramidal system (which is the lateral corticospinal tract-contralateral; and the medial corticospinal tract-ipsilateral) Basal ganglia also called striatum has 3 main parts Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Extrapyramidal side effects: caused by antipsychotic drugs which lead to parkinson’s like symptoms b
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