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Exam Textbook Notes 7, 10, 12, 13

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Suzanne Erb

PSYC62 EXAM TEXT NOTES CHAPTER 7 PSYCHOMOTOR STIMULANTS AND ANTIPARKINSONIAN DRUGSAt low to moderate does these drugs produce motor stimulation reduce fatigue increase resistance to sleep increase vigilance and alertfullness induce heightened moodThe dose response functions typically are inverted U shapedOther used terms for these drugs are behavioural stimulants and CNS stimulantsCaffeine is the most used psychostimulantNext is nicotineNicotine and caffeine along with other substance are referred to as minor stimulantsAmphetamines Ritalin cylert cocaine and several DA agonists are grouped as major stimulants Motor effects of psychomotor stimulantsStimulants produce rate dependent effects on responsesthe effect of the drug depends upon the baseline rate of response generated by the scheduleStimulants also produce motor effects like increased locomotor activity and explorationAs dose gets higher stimulants produce less in the way of locomotion and instead induce a response known as stereotypy o Stereotypy refers to focused and repetitive gnawing in rodents o Also seen in nonhuman primates referred to as pundingForebrain DA systems are critical for the expression of the motor stimulant effects of major psychomotor stimulantsSusan Iversen et al lesions were produced by local injections of the neurotoxic agent 6hydroxydopamine which enters into the terminals of catecholamine neurons and then depletes DA by killing the entire cell or destroying the terminals o Depletion of DA supressed locomotor stimulant effects of low doses of amphetamine but did not supress stereotypy with high doses o Depletion of DA in neostriatum reduced stereotypy but not locomotion o double dissociationAnother behavioural manifestation of receptor super sensitivity seen after DA depletion was observed in experiments involving the rotation model o A unilateral DA depleted is produced and administration of stimulants causes and asymmetrical locomotion known as rotation or circling CaffeineOne of several substances referred to as methylxanthinesTypical American adult consumes 200mg300mg of caffeine a dayIt is difficult to determine the overall time course and impact of caffeine on an individual due to excretion absorption and metabolization variabilityMost of its effects are related to its ability to act as a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptorsAdenosine acts as a neuromodulator that affects neuronal excitability and actions on the A1 subtype of receptor and inhibits presynaptic neuronal release of a variety of neurotransmittersCaffeine is rated as having desirable and pleasant reactions in heavy coffee drinkers and coffee abstainers are more likely to report unpleasant an undesirable reactions to caffeine o Suggests many of the reinforcing effects of caffeine stem from its ability to terminate caffeine withdrawal o Avg caffeine intake of coffee consumers doesnt predict the occurrence of withdrawal o When coffee consumers are tested with caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee without knowing they are more likely to selfadminister caffeinated than decaffeinated coffee o Two cups of coffee150 mg of caffeine has mood elevating and fatigue relieving effect o 710 cups can cause caffeinism insomnia restlessness muscle tension o Caffeine may not increase all indexes of arousal or change hem in the same way in all personas o As little as 32 mg of caffeine has been shown to significantly improve auditory vigilance and visual reaction time o Effects of caffeine on endurance are biphasic at low doses they enhance performance but at high doses have no effectlower performance o Caffeine can enhance reinforcing and subjective stimulant qualities of nicotine in humansSmokers metabolize caffeine at an accelerated rate than nonsmokersUpon quitting smoking caffeine can increase caffeine plasma levels by 200 causing jitterinessWithdrawalsymptom of smoking o Consumption of high doses of caffeine spurred on by growing consumption of energy drinks has led to increasing reports of caffeine intoxication NicotineA wide variety of studies have indicated that there are numerous predictors of adolescent tobacco use o Being male white holding positive attitudes towards smoking concerns over body weight parents who smoke peer pressureo Nicotine dependency strongly associated with alcohol dependency which has an established linkage to genes o Nicotine dependent persons are more than twice as likely as nondependent nicotine uses to have suffered from major depression o The psychosocial rewards such as peer acceptance and role model identification are sufficiently strong to maintain smoking behaviour until the individuals learn to monitor the amount of smoke and the unpleased side effects subside o Debate whether nicotine is the principal reinforce chewing nicotine gum doesnt have the same effect o Studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked was inversely related to the nicotine content not tar content o Effects of nicotine on performance are variable and subtleMany factors involvedWhether person being tested is a tobacco user or notThe degree of nicotine dependence and deprivation level at the time of testingThe route of an administrationThe doseThe predrug psychological state of the personThe type of task used o Smokeless tobacco is not harmlessAssociated with oral and pharyngeal cancer dental gum problems and cardiovascular problems
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