ANCIENT SMALL SCALE:
book/folk logic? back in the days when they had no explanations.. relied on this...
olympian religion (rich cN BE EMOTIONl) vs mystic/orthic mytsery (ur hard work plans ur future, cant be
THE GREEK AGE:
DILUSION OF RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS IN COASTAL CITIES, people had diff ideas, no one was restrained to
one system. so they developed new methods for thinking about psychology. thats where, in coastal
cities you get the scientific mode of inquiry
early science: naturalists (biologists now, best explanation is one that focuses on material) VS
Materialists (all mathematical)
PLATE vs ARISTOTLE: plato: diff between rational soul/psyche VS body (mortal, less pure, irrational
aristotle: rational soul
coastal cities: turkey, where earlier scientific ideas started to develop. and then theres 2 city states:
athens and sparta (eventually engaged in civil war, it weakened all cities in ancient greek, inclding the
two at war, somethign about rome intruding. (the roman age)
plague, economic issues because of civil war. romans came in an invaded and emegered as the
dominant force.. called the HELANISTIC PERIOD. (chaotic:civil war/invasion/social unrest)
what to believe during the hellenistic period?
greek formalists tell u its al about maths. but they have nothing to help deal/understand and adapt to
civil war like situations.
naturalists say look around?: what do you learn by that if you look around and see communities at war.
so people need a school of thought that is sensitive to the challenges they are facing there for 4 DIFF
SCHOOL OF THOUGHT. that address this hellenistic period.
1)SKEPTICS: advocate for non-reminiscent lifestyle focused on community. (adapt through hard times
and should attempt to be a moral hero living by a moral code. they say its a new era, focus in on building
a new society.
2)cynics: individualism: do what makes you happy regardless of what it does to the nehbors.
3) epicurenism: moderation and sel fcontrol are key to happiness. dont eat or drink in excess.happiness
you get thru friendship with other people. friendship, not bread, is food for the soul.
4) stoicism: passivity is preferred: trust that ur born into a world that run according to a greater turning
plan, determined before they are born. trust that your life is pre determined, dont struggle to be more
or different than what ur supose to be, good life is achieved by accepting your destiny.
THE ROMAN EMPIRE:
once they took over, theres a cahnge in the zeitgest. roamans are obsessed with order, they impose
order in how cities are built and how people live their lives.
they focused on technology, engineering, mechanics.
b) cement, the arch, not the pillar, roads.
c) military tactics.
how does this translate into science?
they werent interested in abstract question, they were focused on different engineering.
traditional natural sciences: completely eclipsed.
GALEN: if you want to think about psych activities, then you got to realize that vital spirits are still to
imperfect to allow for cognition and heart that filters the air, that gives you a vital spirit, btu theyre stil imperfect, they must go thru extra
filter, in the brain and gives you the animal spirit thats perfect enough to allow us to think and percieve
REMEMBER THE MAP AND GERMAN SOCIETIES AROUDN ROMAN EMPIRE. when roman empire
crumbles, the societies around come in and take up little city centres and settle them, but they dont do
a good jbo of managing them... taking over a city of people who hate them.. they dcant manage well,
the peope hate them, cities are in turmoil, cant produced food/trade or anythign because it wud be
difficult and dangerous. theres a change in how you think about psychology.
at that time there the catholic church:
people are starting to believe the catholic church, roman empire no longer supports it. you have the
catholic church thats trying to hold people who started believing in them... it didnt want to loose the
loyalty of the new convrts, and protects it self by being more stringent to protect its people. certain
thing you cant do/say/t