Chapter 11 hjispsych.docx

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Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 11 – research methods Titchner – introspection Watson – methodological ehaviourism Logical positivism – the philosophy formulate general principles for gathering knowledge, taking these rules from successful knowledge gathering disciplines (ie physics & chem.)  Began with a group called the Vienna Circle, a group of scientists/logicians working in Vienna  Carnap (1959) – supports this philosophy o Knowledge is embodied in language o In experiements, observations should be described by protocol sentences Verification principal – the meaning of a statement is its method of verification; the truth or falsehood of statements must be objectively determinable Protocol sentences – sentences that refer to publicly observable events; these sentences are meaningful, but no surplus meaning (ambiguity in what they state) Dispositional concepts – descriptions of lawful relationships b/t independent and dependent variables  Has the form: If X, then Y. x=stimulus, y=bh Falsifiability – concept by philosophers such as karl Popper (1965) Operationalism – idea that suggests researchers to specify how a concept is measured.  These specifications are called operational definitions Acceptance of the concepts  Both operationalism & logical positivism were welcomed by behaviourists - which dominated the psychological world at the time because these two methods of inquiry were widely accepted  Gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis was damaged by these new concepts, since they used variables that are un-quantifiable or theories that were untestable or they did not use operational definitions in their studies. No hard, raw data. Criticisms of operationalism  Sigmund Koch (1917-96) – operationism is necessary for meanings, but not sufficient. o It was not meant to be a theory/method of definition, but only a method of sharpening the meanings already in place. o Not operation definition, but operational method. Experimental methods Statistical inference o R.A. Fisher (1890-1962) – made this major contribution; started with a tea tasting experiment; 5% chance of making the wrong conclusion  Null hypothesis – any differences b/t the experimental conditions are due only to chance  Criticism: o It can only be rejected/falsified, never accepted (so it cannot be said that an alternative hypothesis is correct). o By 1950’s, the term ‘statistically significant’ is widely used as a goal of psychologists Correlational methods - A number of diff measures is obtained from a set of participants and the relationship b/t these measures is examined  Originated from Galton  Charles spearman (1863-1945) – central figure for development of correlational methods o Factor analysis – begins with a set of correlations b/t a number of measures, then uses statistical procedures to indentify factors that describes the structure of the correlation coefficients o Allowed Spearman to use two factor theory of intelligence to describe intelligence o Two factor theory of intelligence – every indiv measurement of every ability can be div
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