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Henry Shiu

Hindutva means Hinduness and is a term that has gained political currency in recent years. This term is significant because many Indians use this term to describe their religious traditions rather than the term Hindu which is not a precise term as the words origin shows it is a term based on the perspective of outsiders. Bharata is the modern name for India and originates from King Bharata in the story Mahabharata. In this story the Pandavas and Kauravas (groups who are cousins) battle each other led by Krsna (Pandavas). Karma means action but indicates a system of cause and effect that spans several lifetimes. Human beings receive rewards or punishments based on the merits or demerits of their behaviour. The system has its own rules and hierarchy which are very complex. This theory is significant as it implies continuing rebirths (samsara) and has become an idea of life that has been adopted by many non-Hindus. Samsara is the endless cycle of suffering caused by birth, death and rebirth (i.e. reincarnation. This theory states that at the time of death ones karmic balance is inherited by the next life of that person. This theory is significant as it motivates many Hindus to obtain a supreme wisdom to be liberated from the cycle. Mohenjo-Daro is one of the two towns that existed near the banks of the Indus River and made up the Indus Valley civilization which flourished between 3000 to 1500 BCE. Mohenjo-Daro means the mound of the dead. The culture of Mohenjo-Daro still falls under the term of Harappa civilization which is a more narrow term for Indus Valley civilization. Mohenjo-Daro indicates the excellent architecture of the Harappa civilization and their religious beliefs with procreation. Harappa is one of the two towns that existed near the banks of the Indus River and made up the Indus Valley civilization which flourished between 3000 to 1500 BCE. Harappa civilization indicates the population of the Indus Valley civilization rather than just those in the city. Their culture is very similar in regards with architecture and beliefs in procreation and purity. Aryans refer to the Indo-European people who migrated to Indian subcontinent between 1750 and 1500 BCE. The Indo-Europeans were new immigrants and were appointed the term Aryan meaning noble ones. They were not highly organized as they were people who moved from place to place rather than being settled agriculturalists. The Aryans are significant as their language has evolved into Sanskrit which is the official language of the Hindu religion. Sanskrit is the official language of the Hindu religion and evolved from the Aryan language of the Indo-Europeans. Sanskrit shares several similarities with the languages of the Aryans such as Latin or English. For example, the Sanskrit word for god is deva akin to the English words divine and deity. Rishi (or rsis) are the seers in the Hindu religion that transmitted the sacred words of the Veda to others. 1 Vaidik dharma is used to describe Hinduism as the religions of the Veda. The Veda is the earliest surviving compositions by the Indo-European people. This term indicates the importance of the Veda and its great influence on Hinduism. Mahabharata is one of the two major Hindu epics and is considered the fifth Veda. The story is about the king called Bharata but mainly regards the war between Pandavas and the Kauravas who are groups of cousins. Krsna leads the Pandavas with Arjuna and tells him it is acceptable to fight after trying peaceful means if it is for righteousness. This epic is significant because it contains the 18 chapters which make up the Bhagavad Gita, one of the most holiest books in Hindu tradition. Ramayana is one of the two major Hindu epics and has been enjoyed by the Hindu culture for over 2000 years. The story concerns the young prince Rama, his wife Sita and their devotee Hanuman (a monkey with divine ancestry). It has taken complex forms over the centuries and has been re-enacted many times. According to a traditional statement the story of Rama and Sita will be told as long as the rivers flow on earth and as long as humans live. Puranas is a term for ancient stories and is a way to divide tales. The Bhagavad Gita was written in 200 BCE and added to the Mahabharata is one of the holiest books in the Hindu tradition. The Gita speaks of loving devotion to the lord and importance of selfless action. In the Gita, Krsna instructs his cousin Arjuna (who is generally understood to be any human soul seeking spiritual guidance) on the nature of the human soul, God and how one can reach liberation. Vedas are the earliest surviving composition by the Indo-European people meaning knowledge. The four Vedas were composed between 1500 BCE and 600 BCE. The Veda is an important part of the Hindu tradition. The Vedas are divided into four sections known as the samhitas (hymnic compositions), brahmanas (ritual treatises), Aranyakas (compositions for the forest) and Upanisads (sitting near [the teacher]). Yajur Veda is one of the four Vedas written by the Indo-European people. Instructions on sacrificial rituals are contained in the brahmanas (ritual treatises) section of this book. Atharva Veda contains material that is considered non-Aryan. It contains incantations and remedies to ward off illness and evil spirits. The chants in this book are used for medical or other healing purposes. Sama Veda is one of the four Vedas written by the Indo-European people. It borrows sections Rg Veda but its hymns are meant to be sung in a specific manner. Rg Veda consists of samhitas (hymnic compositions) and were used in sacrificial rituals. The earliest section of Rg Veda consists of 1028 Hymns. The hymns of the other Vedas are borrowed from the Rg. 2 Prana is an internal air current of the body, is often spoken of as the basic animating principle. Prana is a central concept in Yoga where it is believed to flow through a network of fine subtle channels called nadis. Its most subtle material form is the breath, but is also to be found in blood and its most concentrated form is semen in men and vaginal fluid in women. Atman is the term for human soul. This word is significant because to achieve higher wisdom and liberation from samsara one must experientially know the relationship between Atman and Brahman (Supreme Being). Brahman is the term for Supreme Being. Brahman pervades and yet transcends the universe as well as human thought meaning it cannot be properly described. To know Brahman is to enter a new state of consciousness which also cannot be described. To achieve higher wisdom and liberation from samsara one must experientially know the relationship between Atman and Brahman. Triloka means three realms and it depicts the Aryan belief the world is separated into three realms. Purusa is a term that means primeval man. In a hymn called Purusa Sukta (Hymn to the Supreme Person) the Purusa is sacrificed for the purpose of creating the universe. The Laws of Manu attributed to the sage Manu, articulates the etiquette and duties of each class (varna) and of each age group in the new brahman-dominated society. This is significant as it is the new basis of Hindu Laws after the Vedas and the roles of some groups have changed (e.g. women). Varna means class such as rajanya (king). Every varna has their own etiquette and duties according to the Laws of Manu. Jatis means birth groups but translated as caste which is the shorthand term to refer to thousands of social communities that have multiplied throughout the centuries. Each caste has different practices and ones violation of these rules resulted in exile. Ksatriya is a varna and represents the royal class. They were allowed to learn the Vedas but not teach them. Their dharma is to protect the people and their country. The ksatriyas usually traced their ancestry back to the sun or the moon. This varnas etiquette and duties are outlined in the Laws of Manu. Vaisya is a varna and represents the mercantile class who were in charge of all commercial transactions. They were allowed to learn the Vedas but not teach them. Their duties were to rear cattle, trade and engage in agricultural work. The power of wealth and economic decisions lay with this class. Sudra is a varna and represents the servant class. The dharmasastras say that the duty of a sudra is to serve the other classes, especially the Brahmins. Sudras cannot recite ancient texts and must follow their duties to gain good karma. The sudra was not allowed to 3 accumulate wealth or any power/respect even if he was able to do so. The only way for a sudra to be respected was to be of old age. Dharmasastra are treatises written about the nature of righteousness, moral duty and law. They form the basis for later Hindu laws. The most famous of these is the Manava Dharmasastra or the Laws of Manu. The final stage of Asramas is samnyasin which was when a man apparently staged his own social death and became an ascetic. The ascetic can have no belongings and was to spend his time pursuing salvific knowledge and cultivating detachment from life. According to epics and classical texts all humans have certain aims to strive for. Although they are restricted in how intense their pursuit can be and which stage of life they may pursuit a particular aim. The aims are dharma, the discharging of ones duties; artha, wealth and power in all forms; kama, sensual pleasure of many types and moksa, liberation from the cycle of samsara. Yoga means to yoke, to join or to unite and is the training that brings the conscious union of ones soul with the universal soul. There are several systems of yoga which are referred to as Hathayoga. Yoga consists of meditational discipline
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