Page 307-326 World Religions I Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Henry Shiu

Chapter 6 Chinese and Korean Traditions Chinese & Korean Traditions CRYSTALLIZATION Six Dynasties Period (220-598) 220’s -Northern China fell into first invasions from Central and West Asia - Confucianism was in disarray therefore Buddhism established in China -Daoism to variety of directions:  Old interest and concerns not abandoned  Self-cultivation pursued  Ingestion not substances such as Cannibar (aka Mercuric Sulfide)  Under influence of Buddhism, started reinterpreting doctrine  Rebuilding community rituals  Establishing new institutions (eg. 1 Daoist temple in 5 century  Daoism remained active -Zhuangzi’s notions of spontaneity, spiritual freedom and nonattachment were gaining popularity (eg. 7 sages of Bamboo Grove) 300’s –Leizi (3 most important Daoist text) was compiled -Daoism activity in north continued 400’s –Celestial Masters Daoism was state religion of foreign Toba Wei and established across countryside -interest in meditation continued - “secret Instructions of the Holy Lord on the Scripture of Great Peace (book) taught:  To pursue long life you must love energy  Venerate spirit  Value essence -according to this scripture, practitioners of meditation could go beyond the word and ascend to heaven -text warned that those who see darkness should take medicine Two New Schools: highest Clarity & Numinous Treasure  Yang Xi, a medium/shaman got scriptures from immortal Lady Wei of Heaven of Highest Clarity  Goal was to become true being/perfected person (zhenren) through three practices:  Visualizing gods of Big Dipper, linking them with organs, taking vital energy/light from sun/moon, and using outer alchemy (ingestion of elixirs based on substances): flights of ecstasy  Highest Clairty devotees would fast/abstain from rains eating only small amounts of food  As a result of this diet, body made light and radiant= now able to ascend to heavens  Interest in heavenly ascent: also in poem Songs of An, True Consort of Ninefold Fluorescence  Ge Chaofu got many revelations of Buddhist concepts of karma, rebirth, kalpa (cycles of time)  Numinous Treasure sect looked at community/humanity; synthesis of Buddhist/Daoist issues  Scripture for Salvation of Humanity: great cosmic deity who’s concernced for salvation humans sends emissary to reveal teaching form the Dao itself  Teaching focused on purification (zhai) and communal renewal (jiao) rituals  Goals: typical of earlier Han dynasty; preventing disease, natural calamities, ensuring salvation  Temporary altar, cleansing Heart/mind purified through confession of sins, communal feast  Deities invited to altar, incense offered, sponsors of rituals granted audiences with gods; community renewal rituals  Lu Xiujing (406-477) tried making set of common texts to collect a Daoist canon Interaction and Adaptation The Tang Dynasty  Imperial family claimed to be descendants of Laozi, sharing surname Li; Daoism = state religion  Sima Chengzhen (647-735): famous patriarch emphasized practice of inner alchemy, meditation, longevity techniques  Emperor Xuanzhong (713-756): wrote commentary on Daodejing, invited Sima to court, sponsored Daoism to an unprecedented extent  Daodejing briefly included in state examinations, and network of Colleges of Daoism was made  Huang Ling-wei (c. 640-712: famous woman teacher, had a coterie of women disciples  Queen Mother of the West first mentioned in the Zhuangzi, popular between men and women  Classical Daoism reached height of power/popularity during Tang, but even better in Song  From the Song Era to the Present Complete Truth School  Still active today; Associated with White Cloud Abbey in Beijing, distinctive in its monasticism  Founded by Wang Zhe (1113-70), known by Daoist name Double Yang (Chongyang)  Discouraged magical, supernatural understanding of practice of transcendence  Encouraged to read from all three traditions; Daodejing, Classic of Filiality, and Mahayana Buddhist Heart Sutre (Xinjing)  Fifteen Precepts for Establishing the Teaching: harmony in spirit and vital energy; rested body  Achieved by entering Daoist monastery and avoiding damage to vital energy through overexertion  Recommended use of herbs for healing; living simple life not wanting lavish external one  Develop/maintain good Daoist friends, nurturing nature, living out one’s Destiny, pacifying mind  Basic Motif of art of self cultivation = search for the hidden meaning of Nature and mind, he wrote Women  Sun, wife of Wang’s disciple Ma Danyang (Singular Yang); only woman of his 7 Perfected disciples  Wang didn’t allow Sun to cultivate transcendence where an immortal was to emerge; b/c she’d be victim of men’s desire  She burned her face as a result, and Wang taught her inner alchemy; had to hide her knowledge  She travelled to Loyang, forcing her “divorce” and was saved from harassing men by large hailstones Revival of Orthodox Unity  Kublian Khan: Mongolian ruler extended gov. to the south; gave authority to only Orthodox Unity on Dragon and Tiger Mountain, destroying the well doing of new ritual traditions  Orthodox Unity’s exclusive authority continued under the Ming after Mongols were overthrown  As Neo-Confucianism was entrenched in Qing dynasty (1644-1911), Daoism continued inspiration  Qigong: breath exercises Taiji: Tai Chi or Great Ultimate  Modernizing movements, Christian inspired Taiping Rebellion, communism, and scientism critical of Daoism; perceived it as a body of superstition, hostile to progress  Cultural Revolution (1966-76): temples and shrines destroyed or severely damaged; MOHISM AND CHINESE POPULAR RELIGION Mohism  Coexisted w/ Confucianism and Daoism; active and influential during ancient times  Taught ungraded, undifferentiated love, without distinction  Believed Heaven willed people to love one another, punished if you don’t love one another  Ultimate view of gov was provision of shelter, food, security for all members from harm/deprivation  Disappeared after the Han; Mo Di or Master Mo (Mozi, 470-391 BCE) founded Popular Religion  Characterized as loose collection of beliefs/practices  power of deities, ghosts spirits  Non-institutional, various elements from Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity  Souls after death, can intervene uncontrolled in human world, or harnessed for benefit of living  Gives rise to politically charged sectarian and millenarian movements; White Lotus Society The White Lotus Society  Buddhist group following Future Buddha, Milo and Manichaean ideas about becoming King of Light  Clergy married, offered social services covered by family, favoured unorthodox vernacular scriptures  Played huge role in overthrow of Mongolian Yuan dynasty and establishment of native Ming  First Ming emperor feared its power and tried to suppress it  By late Ming, THIS society had disappeared; White Lotus= used by officials: suspect religious groups The Taiping Rebellion  Movement for Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace promoted rebellion against Qing regime (1850-64)  Concessions demanded of China in Treaty of Nanjing=utter defeat of Chinese gov. after Opium War  Hong Xiuquan: founder, claimed to be younger brother of Jesus
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