Key terms for Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism (four points per term)

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Henry Shiu

Key Terms for the Lecture on SikhismNanakfirst guruAngad second guruAmar dasthird guru that introduced a variety of institutional innovations that helped reinforce cohesion and unity of the evergrowing Sikh Panth Founded two annual festivals Divali and Baisakhi that provided regular oppurtunities for the growing community to get together and meet the Guru introduced system of twentytwo manjis as bases for missionaries seeking to attract new converts Ram dasfourth guru established town called Ramdaspur and ordered construction of large bathing pool there Renamed Amritsar nectar of immortality Contributed over 650 hymns to Sikh scriptures and expanded number of melodies ragas to 30 The addition of these melodies made it important to sing the sacred Word which became a distinct area within SikhismArjanfifth guru built the Golden Temple in the sacred pool of Amritsar built Ramdas the fourth guru This monument remains a sacred symbol for the Sikh faith till today Transformed scriptures into Adi Granthdefinitive statement of Sikhisms unique spiritual stance Had a strong stance of independence We are neither Hindu nor Muslim He was executed by emperor Jehangirthis martyrdom was turning point pushing them towards separatism and militancy Hargobindthe sixth guru signaled a new direction by carrying two swords one symbolizing spiritual piri and the other temporal authority miri Took up arms to defend themselves against Moghal hostility Built Akal Takhat throne of timeless being facing Darbar Sahib to resolve internal disputes within the community Moved beyond Mughal state and Kiratpur became new centre for Sikh tradition Harrai seventh guruHarkishan eigth guruTegh Bahadur ninth guru encouraged followers to be fearless in their pursuit to just society Posed a direct challenge to Emperor Aurangzeb who imposed Islamic laws and taxes and ordered replacement of Hindu temples into Mosques He was summoned in Delhi and was executed when he refused to embrace Islam His death second martyrdom helped make human rights and freedom of conscience central to identity of Sikhism Gobind Rai Gobind Singhtenth guru
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