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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

JUDAISM TERMSBAR MITZVAH Son of the commandments the title given to a 13 year old boy when he is initiated into adult ritual responsibilities some branches of Judaism also celebrate a Bat Mitzvah for girlsMaking the start of adulthood at 13 is based on an ancient concept of legal majority It publicly marks that the child has arrived at ritual and moral responsibilityFor the first time the child reads publicly from the scriptureGEMARAHThe body of Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew text of the Mishnah which together with it makes up the Tlamud both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian TalmudMINYANThe quorum of ten required for a prayer service in the synagogueSEDEROrder the term used for the ritual Passover supper celebrated in the home the six divisions of the Mishnah are also called orders or sedersThe Passover comes in the spring and it is the season of agricultural rebirth and renewal commemorates the exodusThe Seder itself is based on the Biblical verse commanding Jews to retell the story of the Exodus from EgyptSimilar to the Eucharist feast in Christianity which marks the last supper of Jesus Christ after which Jesus died for sins of humanity freeing us from sin During Eucharist Christians retell the story of Jesus crucifixion the same way the Passover story is told during Seder Both stories have to do with the freedom of people In Christianity its the freedom of humanity from the sins that Jesus died to save us from and with the Exodus its the freedom of the Hebrews from slavery in EgyptSEPTUAGINTGreek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures made in Alexandria in Hellenistic times The Jewish community of Alexandria in Egypt adopted Greek names as well as Greek rdstyles of architecture and dress By early 3 century BCE knowledge of Hebrew had declined to the point that the bible had to be translated into Greek According to legend the translation was a product of 70 scholars who although working independently by a miracle produced identical drafts The edition is therefore called Septuagint from Latin seventyTranslation of Hebrew Scriptures to Greek during Hellenistic times is similar the translation of the Hewbrew bible into German by Luther In Hellenistic times the translation of the Hebrew bible to Greek is what allowed the religion to flourish since people at the time didnt understand or speak Hebrew Luther in the protestant reformation was successful too because of Vernacular His translation of the Bible to Greek so that it could be understood by everyone and not just aristocrats who understood Latin By contrast Islam holds that the only the original Arabic Quran is authentic any translation is considered to be only an interpretation TEFILLINSmall black leather boxes also termed phylacteries containing words of scripture tied to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs JUDAISM LECTUREBOOK NOTESHEBREW BIBLEpp 8283PENTATEUCH TANAKH ACRONYM T N KPentateuch The first five books of the Hebrew Bible ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activityTanakh TNK Torah Nevium Ketuvim The entire Hebrew Bible the Jewish scriptures which consist of three divisions 1 TORAH the word means teaching or institutionalso refers to the entire scripture the law written and oral5 BOOKS GENESIS EXODUS LEVITICUS NUMBERS DEUTERONOMY2 PROPHETS NEVIIM3 WRITINGS KETUVIMSACRED HISTORYpp 7282CREATION STORIES1 COSMIC CREATION OF ORDER OUT OF CHAOS2 ADAM AND EVEGARDEN OF EDEN TREE OF knowledge of good and evilSatan as the snake in only mentioned in Islam and ChristianityNOAH COMMONALITY OF FLOOD MYTH IN MESOPOTAMIAOne of the first patriarchsFor Mesopotamian myths God created the flood because they were mad about somethingFor Hebrews flood was created by God to punish the evil that humans perpetrated and clear the way for a fresh startGod promised Noah that this is the last catastrophic event he would ever incur to wipe out the human race due to sinning THE WORLD OF THE PATRIARCHS AND MATRIARCHS Anscestors of the Israelite nation in the Hebrew Bibles narratives of origins Patriarch was also a title given to the head of the Jewsih community in early rabbinic timesABRAHAM had to first believe in one God
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