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David Perley

Dhikr  „remembrance‟ or „remembering God‟s name.‟ It is chanted in devotional Sufi exercises and it is sometimes done while devotees dance in a circle. It is a characteristic and religious form of devotional ritual/practice within the Sufi tradition. It can be done in public or privately and it consists of the repetition of the names of God, Allah or the shahadah (there is no God except for Allah – la ilaha illalAllah). Some dhikr practices can be highly emotional, intended to stir the devotee in a state of frenzy. Some dhikr practices can be silent, an inward prayer of the heart. It is significant as it is a way to open up to God and it shows how God is the only being that exist and we are His shadows, which is the belief focused in this ritual. It is self-reforming and regeneration for the Sufis. There can be bodily movements and breathing techniques involved. This form of devotional ritual/practice is related to glossolalia – as it focuses on speaking out ecstatically in an exotic language to express their emotions and feelings, hence drawing similarity to charismatic practices in the Holiness Churches. This term is significant in the Islamic tradition. • Sufi practice; remembrance of God • May be public or private • Congregational dhikr ritual may be held before dawn or evening prayers – consists of the repetition of the name of God, or Allah, or the shahadah “There is no God except God” Often accompanied by special bodily movements and in some Sufi orders, by elaborate breathing techniques Bar Mitzvah  „son of the commandments‟ it is a title given to a 13 year old boy, who is initiated into adult ritual responsibilities. It is part of a coming-of-age ritual that takes place in congregational weekly worship. It is the Saturday, Sabbath, where daily prayer and public assembly takes place in the synagogue; community meeting/house of worship for the Jews. In the coming-of-age ritual, the teenager is required to read two selections from the Hebrew Bible, one is the Pentateuch, five books of Moses, (makes up the first section of the Bible) and one from the second section called Prophets. The ritual signifies the age of ritual and moral responsibility. Bar Mitzvah was always a rite of passage to maturity but it has taken a new toll/sigthficance when the Jews began to attain legal rights in the 18 century. Before it used to be a matter between the rabi and the youngster, now the whole congregation takes part in it. Today‟s contemporary world, it focuses on the meaning of the Bar Mitzvah rather the rituals in order to preserve and renew the tradition that better suits the world today. This term is significant in the Jewish tradition. In Aramaic terms means “son of the commandment” Coming of age ritual for boys and girls (Bat Mitzvah) of 13 years Teenager reads 2 selections from the Hebrew Bible: one from the Pentateuch and one from the Prophets – the TORAH The blessings recited by the young person express the values of the community, which responds by reaffirming them – Then gives thanks for the scripture that has served as a guide for the people in Israel Predestination  the notion that God anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains (fate) every individual to either salvation or damnation (condemnation to eternal hell/punishment). This idea came around the time of the Reformation movement from the 1520s to 1560s. John Calvin was the dominant intellectual leader in this movement. He believed that humans are created for communion with God and the human approach is both spiritual and intellectual. Also believed that God is sovereign, initiating all actions (redeeming and creating world). Two implications come about; humans are sinful as to be utterly dependent on divine grace for salvation, and the idea that God has predestined every person to either salvation/damnation. John Calvin‟s theory of predestination is important to Puritanism. They committed to themselves completely to this theory, in terms of rigorous view of human sinfulness and divine predestination. This term is significant in the Christian tradition. The notion that God anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains every individual to either salvation or damnation Pentateuch  first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses (modern scholars after several centuries saw it as literary activity). The Hebrew Bible divided into three sections (Torah; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy); Prophets (Nevt‟im); Writings (Ketuvim) – All in all, it is called the Tanakh (acronym = T N K). It includes the stories of the patriarchs; Abraham and Jacob for example. Also the accomplishments of King David and King Solomon. In the Orthodox community, it is believed that the first five books was given to Moses at Mount Sinai directly, special revelation (from the story of creation to the farewell address of Moses before he dies at the threshold of the Promised Land). At the coming-of-age ritual, Bar Mitzvah requires the youngster to read two selections from the Hebrew Bible; Pentateuch and Prophets. It takes place in the congregational weekly‟s worship/meeting – Sabbath. This term is significant in the Jewish tradition. Ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity Ummah  the Muslim community that is based on Islamic principles. The prophet, Muhammad (SAW) laid the foundations for it. The first Muslim community was in 622 CE when the city of Yathrib offered an invitation for migration hijrah, came to be known as the „city of the prophet‟ or Medina (the city), marked the beginning of community life under Islam and thus for Islamic history. This term is significant in the Islamic tradition. Arabic for “community” Every person is responsible both for his or her own mortality and for the mortality of the entire Muslim ummah (Q.3:104) The Qur‟an is primarily concerned with moral issues in actual situations Tefillin  traditional prayer garb worn by men on weekdays. The English term for tefillin is called phylacteries meaning protective charm but is misleading because it has no protective value. Pious Jews wear it every morning prayer except for Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. This term is significant in the Jewish tradition. Traditional prayer garb worn by men on weekdays Two small black boxes that hold passages from scripture Long leather straps attached to the boxes are used to tie one box to the forehead and thIntended to fulfill literally the commandment in Deuteronomy 6 to bind the words of Torah “upon the hand and as frontlets between the eyes” Pious Jews put it on for morning prayers every day except Saturday (Sabbath) Hajj the annual pilgrimage to Mecca (but if one cannot do it due to financial or physical reasons, it is okay). It is the last pillar out of the five. The Prophet (SAW) said that Islam is built on Five Pillars and Hajj is one of them. It is part of the religious system of faith and social responsibility, worship, and piety. It is instituted by Abraham (AS) at God‟s command after his son Ishmael was ordered to build the Ka‟ba. Therefore, its ritual elements are understood as re-enacting the experiences of Abraham (AS) – Quran declares him as the first true Muslim and father of prophets. Pilgrimage begins with the lesser hajj („umrah) – performed in the Great Mosque and includes tawaf (walking counter-clockwise around Ka‟ba) and running between the two hills of al-Safa and al- Marwa. The hajj ends with final circumambulation of the Ka‟ba and the completion of the lesser hajj („umrah) for people who did not do it. Tradition believes that a person returns from a sincerely performed hajj free from all sings, as on the day when he/she was born. Hajj is regarded as a form of resurrection/rebirth. Its completion marks a new stage in the life of a Muslim. Hajj is a more inner/private voluntary dimension, whereas zakat is a more public/outer obligatory dimension. This term is significant in the Islamic tradition. One of the five pillars of Islam; pilgrimage to Mecca Instituted by Abraham at God‟s command after he and his son Ishmael were ordered to build the Ka‟ba Understood as re-enacting the experiences of Abraham, whom the Qur’an declares to be the father of prophets and the first true Muslim Glossolalia  speaking in „tongues‟; a distinguishing feature of charismatic movement. This term is related to Holiness Churches (Protestant churches that believe their members have already received „holiness‟ – spiritual perfection, as a gift from God). The intensity of feeling associated with that experience is often expressed physically; speak out ecstatically in an exotic prayer language which is what glossolalia stands for. This type of feature is similar to the devotional practice dhikr, when it comes to expressing the feeling physically or speaking out ecstatically in an exotic prayer language – some forms of dhikr is intended to stir their devotee in a state of frenzy. This term is significant in the Christian tradition. Distinguishing feature of charismatic movementsy in an exotic prayer language Though initially a Protestant phenomenom, this charismatic activity has spread to Catholic Christians since the 1970‟s Mi‟raj  the Prophet‟s (SAW) miraculous journey to heaven (also known as „night journey‟). He experienced travelling from Mecca to Jerusalem in the course of 1 night and then ascending to heaven. He met some of the earlier prophets and was granted an audience with God. This confirmed, for Muslims, that the Prophet (SAW) had the support of God. These were also intense visions of God. This term is significant to the Islamic tradition. Eschatology  doctrine concerning the end of age, from the Greek for „study of the end.‟ This term is significant to the Jewish tradition because many scholars focused on the Jewish Bible predictions, regarding the fate of the world at the end of this age. They kept key note of how it says almost nothing about the destiny of the individual at the end of this life. Hence, Jewish literature that is “eschatology” is actually apocalyptic literature as it makes no basis for the distinction between body and soul; something separate from the body can survive death. Doctrine concerning the end of the age, from the Greek for “study of the end” Seder  „order‟; the term used for the ritual Passover supper celebrated in the home; six divisions of the Mishnah are also called orders or Seders. This festival comes in the spring, the season of agricult
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