Dhikr: the most characteristic Sufi ritual practice, ‘Remembering’ God may be a public or
private ritual. The congregational dhikr which takes place before dawn or evening prayer.
Accompanied by body movements and breathing techniques. Consists of repetition of God’s
name. Different Sufi orders perform in different ways. In some popular orders, it is an
emotional ritual which stirs them into a frenzy (this is similar to some practices in Pentecostal
church). The sober Naqshbandi order has a silent and inward prayer of the heart. This is similar
to the sama’ which is a part of another Sufi practice in which devotees listen to hypnotic
Bar Mitzvah: in Aramaic terms ‘Son of the commandments’ the title given to a 13 year old
boy when he is initiated into adult responsibilities; some branches of Judaism also celebrate a
Bat Mitzvah for girls. Reflects several features that Jews consider most significant in their
traditions. It is a part of every congregation’s weekly worship on the Saturday, which is the
Sabbath. The teenagers reads from 2 sections of the Hebrew bible, one from the Pentateuch
(the 5 books of Moses which make up the first section of the Bible) and one from the second
section of the Prophets. The idea that adulthood begins at 13 is based on the ancient concept
of legal majority. They are eligible to be a part of the minyan and may be called to read from
the scripture during congregational services in the synagogue.
Pentateuch: The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded
by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity. The Pentateuch
and the Torah, Prophets (Nevi’im), and Writings (Ketuvim), or also known as the Tanakh, make
up the Hebrew Bible. The name of the books are Genesis (the book of creation), exodus (book
of redemption). Leviticus (law of the priests), Numbers (book of the censuses), and
Deuteronomy (repetition of the torah). The Pentateuch is read in the synagogue from the scroll
of the law. Pentateuch opens with the creation of the world, deals with the transformation of
Abraham’s offspring, their redemption from Egypt and their wanderings in the desert and
concludes with Moses death before they enter the promise land.
Predestination: The notion that god anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains
every individual to either salvation or damnation. Calvin echoes Augustine’s idea that humans
are created for communion with God and lack rest until they arrive at it. The human approach
to God is both intellectual and spiritual. Calvin uses the term knowledge almost synonymously
with ‘faith’. Luther believed in ‘justification’, ‘sin boldly’ bc you don’t go to heaven based on
your sings; God needs to secure you a place in heaven by his own grace.
Ummah: The Muslim community; Muhammed was always known as the rasul Allah (the
messenger of God) rather than as a ruler or a military leader. But he was all of these ; he waged
war made peace, laid the foundations of the community (ummah) that was based on Islamic
principles. The first ummah was formed when Muhammad was prosecuted and forces to leave
Mecca. He and his followers left to Medina, and this was called the Hijrah. This group of followers and Muhammad were called the first Muslim community. Muhammad was the first
member of the Ummah. Most Muslims are born into Muslim families or they can become a
Muslim by repeating the Shahadah in front of two Muslim witnesses. The Muslim community is
divided into two major communities: Sunni and Shi’a. The Hijrah and the formation of the
Ummah can also be compared to the Exile in which the Jewish leaders were deported from
Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by conquering Babylonians in 586 BCE; disrupting local Israelite
political, ritual, and agricultural institutions, it marked the transition from Israelite religion to
Hijrah: The Prophet’s migration from Mecca in 622 CE to establish a community in Medina. In
dates, the abbreviation AH stands for ‘year of the hijrah’ (the starting-point of the Islamic
Tefillin: Small black leather boxes, also termed phylacteries, containing words of scripture, tied
to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs. It is the traditional prayer garb worn by men on
weekdays. The usual English term is phylacteries from the Greek term meaning ‘protective
charm’, but this is actually misleading because the boxes have no protective value. It is
intended to fulfill one of the commandments in the Deuteronomy.
Hajj: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. It is the 5 pillar of Islam and was instituted by Abraham
at God’s command after he and his son Ishmael were ordered to build the Ka’ba. The Qur’an
declares Abraham to be the father of prophets and the first true Muslim. Before going to Mecca
Muslims only wear two white pieces of linen, and enter the state of consecration. Once in
Mecca the pilgrims begin with the lesser hajj. They then gather for the central rite of the hajj.
Once this has been done they re-enact the stoning of Satan and a blood sacrifice. Abraham.
They end their state of consecration by clipping a minimum of 3 hairs and circling the Ka’ba.
The hajj is regarded as a form of resurrection or rebirth.
Glossolalia: Speaking in tongues; a distinguishing feature of charismatic movements. New
independent churches and movements continued to spring from the revivalist roots of
Methodism. Because of their emphasis on the experience of receiving the gift of holiness, these
congregations are often referred to as Holiness Churches. The intensity of feelings associated
with that experience is often expressed physically. Some people roll in the aisles of the meeting
whereas others speak in tongues. The group believes that such events are inspired by the Holy
Spirit. This was initially a Protestant phenomenon; however it has spread to Catholic Christians
mi’raj: The prophet’s miraculous journey to heaven. The Mi'raj is the night journey that Prophet
Mohammad took during a single night. It was both a physical and spiritual journey. In the
journey, Muhammad travels from Mecca to Jerusalem, where he leads to other prophesy in
prayer. He then ascends to heaven where he speaks to God. He also meets earlier prophets. This is a significant event because it confirmed Muslims that the prophet still had the support of
God, hence it is an important event in the Islamic calendar.
eschatology: Doctrine concerning the end of the age, from the Greek for ‘study of the end’. A
genre of Jewish literature that emerged in the later prophetic books and flourished in the
Hellenistic era, continuing even into the Byzantine period of the first several centuries, is
termed apocalyptic. Most apocalyptic literature is eschatological In nature and visionary
presentation. The apocalypse is from the Greek word meaning ‘unveiling’ and is equivalent to
revelation. Refers to the final battle between the forces of darkness and light expected at the
end of time. In Judaism the Messiah is believed to get rid of apocalyptic, and in Christianity it is
thought that the messiah will reinstate a spiritual state of being rather than a political one.
Mahdi, 12 imam will return w/ jesus to instill justice and save people. Noah’s ark.
Nicene Creed: The church began composing creeds, which were statements of content of
Christian faith, very early in its history. Such creeds served as tests of commitment and
seriousness of individuals joining the movement. The Nicene Creed was named for the Council
of Nicaea in 325 but ratified in its present form in 381. Somewhat longer than the Apostle’s
Creed, it covers many of the same topics in more detail and is a regular part of services in the
Catholic tradition. Comparing these two texts we see that the Nicene Creed is more specific
about the Holy Spirit and more inclined to mention the Spirit along with God the father and
Christ the son as part of a triadic list. Relates to 10 commandments.
Qiblah: The direction of prayer marked in mosques by a niche inside the wall nearest Mecca.
Qiblah is the direction of the sacred shine Kaba in Mecca, where Muslims would turn five times
each day when performing the salat (considered one of the 5 pillars of Islam). After
Muhammad’s emigration to Medina in 622, he indicated Jerusalem as the qiblah, but when
Jewish and Muslim relations were no longer promising, Muhammad changed the qiblah to
Mecca. Contrasting with Judaism, Mizrah is the direction that most Jews in the diaspora face
during prayer. The Jewish law states that Jews should face the site of the Temple in Jerusalem
during prayer and most Jewish in the diaspora lived west of Jerusalem, so they faced east
Transubstantiation: Trent reiterated the Catholic understanding of the mass as a sacrifice. The
Catholic doctrine that in the Eucharistic service the bread and wine are miraculously
transformed into the body and blood of Christ. For four centuries after Trent, the Tridentate
text of the mas, in Latin, was standard throughout the Catholic world. Since Latin was no longer
spoken by the congregation, however, the moment of transubstantiation was indicated by
ringing of a small bell.
Isnad: The pedigree or chain of transmission of a hadith, with which the individual unit begins
in the Sufi tradition. Such chains began with the shaykh’s immediate master and went back in an unbroken chain to ‘Ali or one of his descendants, or in some cases to other Companions of
the Prophet or their successors. This is similar to how hadiths are formed. Prophet’s hadiths are
the Prophet’s sayings. Islamic tradition is the body of sayings traced to the Prophet
Muhammad’s chains of oral transmission. Hadith is the most important component of sunnah
because it is the most direct expression of the Prophet’s opinions or judgments regarding the
community’s conduct. To qualify as a hadith, a text must be accompanied by its chain of
transmission, beginning with the compiler or last transmitter and going back to the Prophet.
The hadith and sunnah can be compared to the Q source.
Mishnah: The Hebrew summary of the oral law-inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to
Moses-arranged by topic; edited by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE, it has an authority
paralleling that of the written Torah. The Mishnah and the Gemarkah make up the Talmud.
Eucharist: The ritual re-enactment of Jesus’s sacrifice of himself, patterned after his sharing of
bread and wine as his body and blood at the final Passover meal with his disciples according to
the synoptic Gospels. Orthodox Christians term it the liturgy, Catholics the mass, and
Protestants the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion. The name Eucharist is a Greek word for
‘thanksgiving’. Because Jesus gives thanks before distributing the bread and win the ritual is
called the Eucharist. The Eucharist can be compared to Passover which is a festival that
commemorates the harvest and spring. It is Jewish and Christian term. A family meal known as
the sedar is to be eaten in eight days.
seder: Passover which is a festival that commemorates the harvest and spring. It is Jewish and
Christian term. A family meal known as the sedar is to be eaten in eight days.
Midrash: Commentary on the scripture; the actual activity of interpretation of the Torah and
scriptures. The Torah consists of the Talmud, Hebrew Bible, and Midrash.
ijma`: The consensus of religio-legal scholars; one of the two secondary principles used in
jurisprudence; some legal schools give it more weight than others. Ijma refers to the
community acceptance and support of applied shariah. It is meant to ensure the continued
authenticity and truth of the 3 other sources. It encouraged an active exchange of ideas among
the scholars in the period of Islamic law. It has remained the final arbiter of truth and error.
Septuagint: The Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, made in Alexandria in Hellenistic
times. The Jewish community of Alexandria in Egrdt adopted Greek names as well as Greek
styles of architecture and dress. By the early 3 century knowledge of Hebrew had declines to
the point that the Bible had to be translated into Greek. According to legend, the translation
was the product of seventy scholars who although worked independently produced identical
drafts of the Bible. This can be compared to how Luther translated the Bible into German, the
vernacular form, from the Latin so that everyone could understand its messages. Only those with education could understand Latin and read it, therefore by changing it into the vernacular
he allowed more to have access.
Excommunication: Formal expulsion from the Church, particularly the Roman Catholic Church,
for doctrinal error or moral misconduct. Marcion who lived after Paul was excommunicated
from the Church because of his teachings in 144. However this did not stop him from making
his views known.
shari’ah: The specific regulations of Islamic law (jurisprudence, or theoretical discussion of the
law is fiqh). A messenger is also a prophet who is sent by god to a specific community but the
message he delivers is a universally binding sacred law (shari'ah). The Torah given to Moses on
Mount Sinai was an example of Shari'ah. Shari'ah is also a way of life based on moral
imperatives. The term Shari'ah originally signified as the way to a source of water.Muslims
believe the Shari'ah to be gods plan for the ordering of human society.
Sabbath: The seventh day of the week, observed by Jews since ancient times as a day of rest
from ordinary activity. One creation story states that God took 6 days to create Earth and life,
and on the seventh day rested which is why on the seventh day of the week Jews rest. The
Sabbath starts at sundown on Friday and continues onto Saturday. On Saturday Jews come
together at the synagogue and form the congregation. Congregational services which consist of
reading from the Torah and other scriptures occur. Bar/Bat Mitzvahs are celebrated on the
Sabbath during the congregational gathering in the synagogue.
Zakat: The prescribed welfare tax; 2.5% of each Muslim’s accumulated wealth, collected by
central treasuries in earlier times but now donated to charities independently of state
governments; see also sadaqah. One of the five pillars of Islam. It is a practice initiated by
Muhammad. An obligation that an individual has to donate a certain proportion of wealth each
year for charity. Zakat is a mandatory process for Muslims in order to physically and spiritually
purify their yearly earnings. For gold and silver, which is understood to include all liquid assets,
the rate is 2.5%. Zakat is different from sadaqa which is volutnary.
Indulgences: Releases from time in purgatory; the selling of indulgences was one of the abuses
that led to the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther was an Augustine monk and the
theological scholar who objected the Church’s practice of selling indulgences.
Berith: a biblical covenant found in the bible. the word covenant refers to any number of
agreements made between God and the children of Israel in the Hebrew bible, as well as to the
new covenant for Christians. Abraham made a covenant with God, circumcision of all Jews.
Also, he made a covenant with God to sacrifice his son, when God wanted to test his
faithfulness to him. Moses made a covenant with God, it begins in the Exodus and contains the
foundation of the Torah. In this covenant, God promises: 1) To make the children of Israel his special possession among all people if they obey god and
2) To make children of Israel a kingdom of priests and a holy nation
3) To give children of Israel the Sabbath as the permanent sign of his covenant
-God passed down the Ten Commandments to Moses as covenant
Puritanism: A Calvinist inspired movement though sought to ‘purify’ the Church of England of
Catholic influences. It was not a denomination in itself, but a movement in the English and
colonial American Protestant churches that flourished from the sixteenth to the mid-
seventeenth century. The Puritans held firmly the Calvinist theology, committing themselves to
a rigorous view of human sinfulness and divine predestination. Individuals who believed
themselves to have been chosen by God for salvation tended to display a strict, sometimes
smug, sense of moral vocation that was reflected in the Puritan movement. Languages:
-in the beginning was the logos God first created the word
Oral and wriiten Torah (The Torah consists of the Talmud, Hebrew Bible, and Midrash.)
Pentateuch The name of the books are Genesis (the book of creation), exodus (book of
redemption). Leviticus (law of the priests), Numbers (book of the censuses), and
Deuteronomy (repetition of the torah)
Mishnah (oral)oldest written rabbinical document, rabbi judah, bc it was oral they thought
they could interpret it
Midrash (commentaries)rabbis wrote it, thus human language
New testament written in greek (aramayic old fom of greek)
HB revelations (god language)
Talmud0.5 revel +0.5 interpretation
Oral language is important in this tradition as moses received the 10 commandments
orally as an oral torah/contract
The 10 commandments are written in hebrew, which reaffirms the scared role of the
language, in this context it is selected as the anointed language of the Israelites.
The tanakh is the torah, while the mishnah is the oral torah which is recited in hebrew
the sacred language of god
The book form is the gemarah and talmud
The scared aspect of the language is revealed through the mishnah as it is sacred and
cannot be written down, it is a revelation from god and has to be practiced orally just as
god passed it down
Midrash is the actual act of interpretation also done in hebrew
Moses is a prophetreceives his messages from God
In the beginning was the logosgod first created the words
Gospels diff interpretations
New testament written in gre