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David Perley

RLGA01‐ MCQS   APOCALYPSE (JUDAISM):  (58) – The end of Antiquity  Æ  Late Egyptian text  (Asclepius Apocalypse)  Page 158   ‐From the Greek for “unveiling”   ‐Latin equivalent “revelation”   ‐Disclosure of something hidden.  ‐The last battle between the forces of darkness and light expected at the end of time. (93)  ‐Apocalypse literature flourishes in the Hellenistic era and is taught in eschatology.  ‐The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic civilization is the period of ancient Greek history between  the death of Macedonian king Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of ancient  Rome.  Page 93: Essenes were a group of rigourously observed priests under the leadership of man  they called the teacher of righteousness. When a disapproved candidate was appointed as  priest they left Jerusalem. They established a centre of priestly purity in preparation for what  they believed to be the coming apocalypse : The last battle between the forces of darkness and  light expected at the end of time.  Page 95:  Eschatology: The doctrine concerning the end of age – from the Greek  for “Study of  the end”.  Most apocalyptic literature is eschatological in nature and visionary in presentation.  Page 97: Apocalyptic literature associated the messiah with a divine overturning of the existing  order.  ‘Messiah’ comes from the Hebrew mashiah, meaning  ‘anointed  one’.    APOCALYPSE (CHRISTIANITY):  Page 261    ‐ Cataclysmic (catastrophic) events marking the transition from one era to another  ‐ Apocalyptic: A name of the last of the New Testament, which describes such events.     (pg 167) – Life of Jesus:  Jesus recruits twelve male disciples, attracts number of women followers. He travels around the  region, working  miracles, teaching how to apply Jewish law to everyday life, and telling  parables most of which point to an impending Apocalypse that will lead to a new era of peace  and righteousness he calls the Kingdom of God.  (pg  261)‐   Berith    (158, 76)  ‐Berith is a Hebrew term for ‘covenant’.  ‐The special relationship between god and the Jewish people  ‐ The theological term ‘covenant’ means much the same thing that ‘contract’ does today.  - Passover: Moses had contract with god to rescue the Jewish from slavery in Egypt. - Exodus - Apocalypse & Berith Diaspora   158, 90, 94  ‐ Diaspora: (From the Greek for ‘sowing of seed’, hence ‘Dispersal’)  ‐ The Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel.  ‐ It began with the Babylonian Exile, from which not all Jews returned.  ‐ Judaisim had to evolve new ways of understanding and explaining its self, since majority  of Jews lived outside the ancient land of Isreal throughout the Mediterranean and  Mesopotamia ‐ Exile [1] A diaspora (from Greek  "scattering, dispersion")  is "the movement, migration, or scattering of  people away from an established or ancestral homeland" [2 or "people dispersed by whatever  cause to more than one location.  The first mention of a diaspora created as a result of exile is found in the Septuagint in the  phrase "esē diaspora en pasais basileias tēs gēs" translated to mean "thou shalt be a dispersion  in all kingdoms of the earth". Its use began to develop from this original sense when the  Hebrew Bible  was translated into Greek.  The Translation was done by 70 independent scholars which miracally produced identical  drafts. Hence the edition is therefore called the Septuagint (From the Latin for ‘seventy’)    Documentary Hypothesis:   158, 82‐83  ‐ The theory (1894) that the Pentateuch was not written by one person (Moses), but  complied over a long period of time from multiple sources. (Theory by Wellhausen)  ‐ Pentateuch: The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but  regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity.  ‐ German Scholar Julius Wellhausen’s theory which states that the Pentateuch (five books  of Moses) might be a composite creation, and were derived from originally  independent, and complete narratives, which were subsequently combined into the  current form by a series of editors. ‐ TORAH  Eschatology:   158, 95‐97 (Jewish)    The doctrine concerning the end of age – from the Greek for “Study of the end”.    Most apocalyptic literature is eschatological in nature and visionary in presentation.  Book of Ecclesiastes  Book of Daniel    Exile:  158,86‐88    The deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the conquering  Babylonians in the 586 BCE; Disrupting local Israelite political, ritual, and agricultural  institutions including razing Solomon’s temple, it marked the transition from the Israelite  religion to Judaism.  At some time during the exile, the institution known  as the synagogue was born, and Temple  worship never regained its former importance even after the Temple was built.    ‐ Synagogue is the Jewish house of worship and community meeting.  ‐ Exodus  ‐ Diaspora    Exodus:   158, 77‐79  The migration of Hebrews from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, understood in the later  Hebrew thought as marking the birth of the Israelite nation.  ‐ Exile  ‐ Passover : Jewish people till this day celebrate their participation in the exodus during the Passover festival ‐ Moses had contract with god to rescue the Jewish from slavery in Egypt. ‐ The 10 commandments were presented in Exodus and again in Deuteronomy.               Menorah: 158, 100-101 The seven-branched candlestick, a Jewish symbol since ancient times, well before the widespread adoption of the six-pointed star; the nine-branched menorah used at Hanukkah is sometimes called a hanukiah. ‐ Today menorah is the official symbol of the state of isreal. ‐ The locus of public worship in rabbinic times was no longer the Temple, but the synagogue (from the Greek for ‘assembly’ or ‘gathering’. ‐ Menorahs: used in both ancient and modern synagogues. ‐ Synagogue’s became especially important during Diaspora for assembly, study and prayer. ‐ Six pointed star is called the Magen David (Shied of David) Midrash: 158,102-103,107 ‐ After the Biblical body was fixed, the Rabbis(teachers), proceeded to collect and add to the body of Bible interpretation, known as Midrash. Traditionally used in synagogue. Commentary on scripture; Interpretation or commentary. Most midrashic commentaries are  line‐by‐line interpretations following the sequence of the biblical text.  - Tanakh : The entire Hebrew Bible, consisting of Torah (or law), Nevi’im (or prophets), and Ketuvim (or sacred writings), and named as an acronym of these three terms. - The early Midrashim include three books of legal discussions form the first and second centuries - 1. Mekhilta for Exodus 2. Sifra for Leviticus and 3 Sifre for Numbers and Deuteronomy. - Another, later type of midrash, known as homiletical, is believed to present discussions generated by rabbinic sermons. Mishnah: 158, 102, 103-104, 105-106 -The Hebrew summary of the oral law—inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses— arranged by topic; edited by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE, it has a
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