Apostles- The first generation of Jesus followers. Apostle along with deacon and elder are the
only leadership roles in the New Testament.
Pentecost- the 50 day after Easter, commemorated as the dramatic occasion when Jesus
followers experienced the presence of the holy spirit. In the Jewish tradition this was the
festival of Shavuoth, the feast of weeks celebrating the end of the grain harvest and the giving
of the 10 commandments to Moses. In Christianity however it is when the holy spirit enabled
the apostles to speak in diverse languages. Pentecost marks the emergence of the church as a
missionary movement with a message for all people. In England Pentecost is often called
Whitsunday because of the white garments worn by people baptized on the day. In Latin
countries it is known as the feast of the holy spirit.
Christ- from the Greek word Christos, a translation of the Hebrew word for messiah ‘anointed’.
Christ is not a synonym for messiah but it has similar connotations. Also frequently used as a
personal second name for Jesus
Bishop- the supervising priest of an ecclesiastical district called a diocese. Bishops responsibility
was to ordain deacons and priests, symbolized by laying hands on the head of the inductee.
Similarly, although any Christian could induct someone into the faith by performing the bathing
ritual it was the bishop making his rounds in his diocese (administrative district) who would
confirm the baptism of new initiates.
Canon- A standard; list of books acknowledged by the roman empire church leaders as scripts,
a scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture; the list of acknowledged saints
is likewise a canon. Canon law is the accumulated body of church regulations and discipline.
Clergy subject to the rule of a particular cathedral or congregation are also sometimes termed
canons. The standard canon is what Christians know as the New Testament, it includes the
gospels attributed to 4 of Jesus’ disciples: Matthew Mark Luke and John. By then those 4
accounts had been accepted throughout Christendom. The situation was much more fluid in
the late first and early second centuries when the texts were first written and they were not the
only accounts in circulation. Marcion was the author of a blueprint of Christianity that was
rejected, in his theology he took Pauls ideas to astonishing lengths for example Paul’s contrast
between law and gospel became for Marcion a contrast between the old and new testament.
Not just between 2 scriptures but between one God and another. Marcion rejected the entire
Hebrew cannon as he believed that Demiurge the creator God of the Hebrew scriptures as
stern, fearsome, capricious, despotic and cruel. So according to him the coming of Jesus reveals
an utterly different God, a God of love and mercy who will take the place of Demiurge.
Eucharist- the ritual re-enactment of Jesus’ sacrifice of himself, patterned after his sharing of
bread and wine as his body and blood at the final Passover meal with his disciples. Orthodox Christians term it the liturgy, Catholics the mass, and protestants the lords supper or Holy
Communion. Anselm’s view of the atonement contributed to the medieval Latin i