Apocalypse: Greek work “unveiling”, Latin is “revelation”; final battle bt forces of light and darkness
expected at the end of time. Apocalyptic literature flourished in Hellenistic era.
Berith: Hebrew term for covenant, the special relationship bt God and Jews. Contract.
Diaspora: dispersal, Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel, began with Babylon exile, not all
Documentary Hypothesis: theory that the Pentateuch was not written by one person (moses) but
compiled over long period of time from multiple sources
Eschatology: doctrine concerning the end of the age, from the Greek for “study of the end”
Exile: Deportation of Jew leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the conquering Babylonians in
586, disrupting local Israelites political ritual and agricultural institutions, it marked the transition from
Israelite religion to Judaism.
Exodus: migration of Hebrews from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, understood in later Hebrew
thought as marking the birth of the Israelite nation.
Menorah: the 7 branched candlestick, a Jew symbol since ancient time, before the 6 pointed start, 9
branch menorah used as Hanukkah is sometimes called a hanukiah
Midrash: commentary on scripture, interpretation, greek word exogesis, rabbinical judasim engage in
the holy book, comment on it in and interpret it that activity is called a midrash.
Mishnah: The Hebrew summary of the oral law – inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses –
arranged by topic; edited by Rabbi Judah haNasi before 220CE, has authority parallel of the written
Passover: The major spring festival of agriculture rebirth and renewel, given a historical dimension by
association with the hasty departure of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses leadership
Pentateuch: The first 5 books of the Hebrew bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by
modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity.
Rabbi: a teacher in roman times and expert on interpretation of Torah, since priestly sacrifices ceased
with the destruction of the temple, the rabbi has been the scholarly and spiritual leader of the Jewish
Sabbath: the 7 day of the week, observed by the Jews since ancient times as a day of rest from
Tanakh: the entire Hebrew bible, consisting of the Torah (law), Nev’im (prophets) and Ketuvin (sacred
writings) and named as an Acronym of these 3 terms.
Apostles: the first generation of Jesus’s followers
Pentecost: The 50 day after Easter, commemorated as the dramatic occasion when Jesus’s followers
experienced the presence of the Holy Spirit
Christ: greek word “Christos”, Hebrew word “messiah”..the “anointed”
Bishop: supervising proest of an ecclesiastical district called a diocese
Canon: a standard, scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture, the list of
acknowledged saints is likewise a canon. Canon law is the accumulated body of Church regulations and
discipline. Clergy subject to the rule of a particular cathedral or congregation are also sometimed
Eucharist: the ritual re-enactment of Jesus’ sacrifice of himself, patterned after his sharing of bread and
wine as his body and blood as the final Passover meal with his disciples. Orthodox Christian term it the
liturgy, catholics the mass, and protestants the lords supper or holy communion. Greek word for
Gospel: “good news”, the news of redemption that the Hebrew prophets had promised. The gospels are
the accounts of Jesus life attributed to his disciples Mark, Matthew, Luke and John. Logos: “word” in the sense of eternal divine intelligence and purpose
Rabbinic Movement: started at the Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70BCE. Again the temple was
destroyed and not rebuilt. Institutions/practices associated with Temple worship vanished like animal
sacrifice for Jewish people. Sadduccees and Essenses lost their power disappeared and so the Pharisees
job was to try to preserve Judaism, but in time they also disappeared and their traditions became the
base on which the institutions of rabbinic Judaism was built. Rabbis are the chief custodians of their
heritage and are not priests but the teachers and legal experts and specialists of the text.
-Rabbinic Judaism can be seen as both a continuation and a transformation of the biblical tradition. It
was not a hereditary priesthood, all that was required was proper education which was available to any
males at local schools. As soon as student completed his studies, he was ordained as a rabbi. Religious
law became the principles to fulfill the covenant with God. Temple rituals used in past