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World religions key terms for final exam.docx

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David Perley

sanatana dharmaThere is no one way to describe oneself as Hindu most people talk of specific caste or sect community This is an alternative word which literally means eternal faith but is only common in afew parts of Indian and in some class of society The term is seldom used to refer to local manifestations of the faith They consist of spiritual laws that govern the human existanceIt is said that they are eternal laws and existed before the discovery of them by the rishisin the Vedic period Eg of sanatama darmadharmasacred duty of oneself Tilaka most common visual sign of Hindu culture is forhead mark Especially red dot bindi tradtionally worn by married womenIn many parts of India however menascetics and temple preists also wear various forhead marks in the context of religious ritualsLike many elements in hindu traditions forhead mark may be interpreted inv arious ways depending on gender marital status of person wearing it May show affiliation to aparticular deity made with white clay Followers of Vishnu and Krishna and Lakshmi wear vertical marks and worshippers ofShiva and Parvati wear horizontal or slightly curved crescent marksBharataBhrata is the official Sanskrit name of the countryHowever in some puranasancient stories the term Bharate refers to the whole Earth as Emperor Bharata had ruled the whole Earth According to the most popular theory the name Bhrata is the vriddhi of Bharata son of king Dushyanta and Shakuntala who became the first emperor of the unified Greater IndiaThis term also means one who is engaged in search for knowledgeINDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONincludes many termsthe fathers of hinduismgrown from a fusion of indigenous religions of Indus Valley with faith of Aryansnot very organized nomads EVERYTHING we know bout em is in VEDAS ARYANS evolved SANSKRITwho are IndoEuropean tradition thought to have migrated between 1750and 1500 BCE 1926 excavations revealed remains of several large towns on banks of Indus River knownas Mohenjo Daro and Harappamore than 480 km apart The towns were in existence by about 2750 BCEculture had a written language as shownon carved sealsno one has been able to decipher it thoughHarappa civilization known to be impressive builders who lived in planned citiescitadel mound at Mohenjo Daro has huge swimmingpool like structure great bathdesignedfor RELIGIOUS PURPOSESCIVILIZATION WAS CONCERNED with 1 purity 2 procreationHow Worshipped male animals for sexual powersFemale reproductive powers regarded sacredSculptures statuettes of what look like mothergoddessesThought to be known as an early form of a deity known asthe GoddessThe goddess worship is indicative that society had women in high statusSome scholars believe Indus Valley civilization fell because IndoEuropeans invaded orsome mass flooddrove population east SANSKRIT Indo Europeans is a term refrring to family of languages of which Sanskrit is onethe classical language of IndiaSimilarities between Sanskrit and English Hundreds of cognates between English and Sanskrit VEDASincludes SAMHITAS BRAHMANASARANYAKASUPANISHADSEarliest surviving IndoEuropean composition are the Vedas which came from word in Sanskritfor knowledge collectively these works are known as Shruti that which is heardVedic rishis saw the mantras and transmitted them to their disciples starting an oral traditionthat has continued to the presentVedas would be described as the most sacred texts although most people dont know what iswithin them
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