Study notes for Religion Midterm
Multiple Choice questions
Judaism Definitions (pgs. 158-159)
Apocalypse: From the Greek for ‘unveiling’ (the Latin equivalent is ‘revelation’); the final battle between
the forces of darkness and light expected at the end of time. Apocalyptic literature flourished in the
Berith: Hebrew term for covenant, the special relationship between God and the Jewish people.
Diaspora: ‘Dispersal’, the Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel; it began with the Babylonian
Exile, from which not all Jews returned.
Documentary hypothesis: The theory (1894) that the Pentateuch was not written by one person
(Moses) but compiled over a long period of time from multiple sources.
Eschatology: Doctrine concerning the end of age, from the Greek for ‘study of the end’.
Exile: The deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by conquering Babylonians in
586 BCE; disrupting local Israelite political, ritual, and agricultural institutions, it marked the transition
from Israelite religion to Judaism.
Exodus: The migration of Hebrews from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, understood in later
Hebrew thought as marking the birth of the Israelite nation.
Menorah: The seven branched candlestick, a Jewish symbol since ancient times, well before widespread
adoption of the six-pointed star; the nine branched menorah used at Hanukkah is sometimes called a
Midrash: Commentary on scripture.
Mishnah: The Hebrew summary of the oral law-inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses-
arranged by topic; edited by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE, it has an authority paralleling that of
the written Torah.
Passover: The major spring festival of agricultural rebirth and renewal, given a historical dimension by
association with the hasty departure of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses’ leadership.
Pentateuch: The first five books of the Hebrew bible ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by
modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity. Rabbi: A teacher, in Roman times an expert on the interpretation of the Torah; since priestly sacrifices
ceased with the destruction of the Temple, the rabbi has been the scholarly and spiritual leader of the
Sabbath: The seventh day of the week, observed by Jews since ancient times as a day of rest from
Tanakh: The entire Hebrew bible, consisting of Torah (or law), Nevi’im (or prophets), and Ketuvim (or
sacred writings) and named as an acronym of these three terms.
Christianity Definitions (pgs. 261-262)
Apocalypse, apocalyptic: Cataclysmic events marking the transition from one era to