World Religion – Quiz Review Notes – Judaism
Apocalypse: The Greek word for revelation or “lifting of veil”. It religious context, it is viewed as the end
of the world. God’s purpose and his way of dealing with mankind. Priests in Jewish traditions always said
that people need to make preparations, because evil is about to happen. When a man, they disapproved
off, became a priest; the other priests said that God is very angry and the end is coming soon. The
Christians also anticipate the events and it is written in the Gospel of Peter. Muslims also believe in the
end of the world, where all humans will then pay for their deeds and the true end of the world and
mankind. From the Greek for ‘unveiling’ (the Latin equivalent is ‘revelation’); the final
battle between the forces of darkness and light expected at the end of time. Apocalyptic literature
flourished in the Hellenistic era. (93)
Berith: It is the Greek word for a covenant. It is also related to the idea of the contract between humans
and God. It is related to many stories that have occurred in the past, in relation to the three religions we
are studying in this course. In Judaism, it can be related to the agreement of circumcision and the
agreements made when the Ten Commandments were revealed at Mt. Sinai, during the Exodus. In
relation to Christianity, it was be following the New Testament and the commandments. In Islam, it can
relate to following the teachings of the Quran and trying to emulate the practises of the Prophet
Muhammad (the hadith). Hebrew term for covenant, the special relationship between
God and the Jewish people. An example of this can also be the story of Adam and Eve, their agreement
with God to not eat from a certain tree. The punishment for breaking these kinds of agreements is
usually exile (seen in many stories). The reward for the followers is acceptance.
Diaspora: This term refers to the time when Jews were scattered around the world, i.e. away from their
(Canaan) homeland, Israel. It is widely connected to the time when the Jews were exiled from Israel by
the Babylonians after their conquest. It is also seen as the time when Jews were left without guidance as
their temple had been destroyed. Through being scattered. In Greek, it means the “sowing of seed” and
“dispersal”. This is related to the idea of reward (acceptance/home) and punishment (exile). Therefore,
these examples relate to this main idea when people are exiled from their homeland, as a punishment.
This story can also be related to the idea of Adam and Eve, where they were exiled from the heavens
after making a mistake by eating from the forbidden tree. ‘Dispersal’, the Jewish world
outside the land of ancient Israel; it began with the Babylonian Exile, from which not all Jews returned. Documentary Hypothesis: A German scholar named Julius Wellhausen, after studying the 5 Books of
Moses, proposed that each of the books were initially written separately and later compiled into a single
book by the priests or scribes. It is therefore also believed that there editors then added in several other
ideas into the original 5 books to make them complete. The idea struck Julius after he noticed the
difference in the style of the language used in the different books. However, in Jewish, Christians and
Muslim beliefs, his theory has been heavily criticized because these are humanizing assumptions. Other
radical do believe in the possibility of this theory and is the basis of research today. This also ties into
the belief of the oral tradition and oral torah, as scribes and priests later wrote these different stories
down and compiled these stories into a book. The theory (1894) that the Pentateuch was not
written by one person (Moses) but compiled over a long period of time from multiple sources. (82–83).
eschatology: It is the Greek word for ‘study of the end’ and is concerned with the end of a person’s age.
It is related to the theories with the apocalypse, the unveiling or the revelation. It can also be classified
as the study of the apocalypse. Can be seen in all the three religions we study, with a different name.
The discussions are usually about the fate of Israel as a whole or of a particularly faithful subgroup.
Doctrine concerning the end of the age, from the Greek for ‘study of the end’. (95)
Exile: It is a common theme seen throughout Jewish stories. The pattern of reward (acceptance and
home) and punishment (exile). We see this all throughout history, the story of Adam and Eve. It can also
refer to the time when the first temple was destroyed, later believed that this was a radical punishment
from God. The Jews were then exiled from Judah and were taken to Babylonia. This concept can also be
related to Islamic history where the Prophet Muhammad was exiled from Mecca, as he was not
accepted by the people who did not believe in his words. Plays a vital part in Jewish and Islamic history.
The deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the conquering
Babylonians in 586 BCE; disrupting local Israelite political, ritual, and agricultural institutions, it marked
the transition from Israelite religion to Judaism. (86)
Exodus: The exodus refers to the journey undertaken by Moses and the Jewish slaves he had freed from
the pharaoh of Egypt, with God’s help. After being freed, they are led by Moses back to Israel and Mt.
Sinai. The exodus ends at Mt. Sinai, with the people forming a covenant/contract with God, to worship
him as he had freed them from slavery. The festival of Passover is held to acknowledge this event as
Yahweh punished the Egyptians and not the Jews. Moses had returned to Egypt and warned the people
of the Pharaohs plagues. It was noted that one of the plagues was that a spirit goes past the houses and
kills the first born sons of all the families, except the Hebrew ones (who have blood marked on their doors). As the group of people, the parting of the red sea occurs and the people return to the land of
Israel. When Moses gets to Mt. Sinai and the Ten Commandments are revealed. At this time, God tells
Moses and the people to create a portable place of worship/turntable; as a test to see if they listen.
Later through the journey, God tells Moses to tap in a rock and water will flow. However, Moses makes
the mistake of tapping the rock a few extra times, and upsets God. As the reoccurring theme or reward
(home) and punishment (exile), Moses passes away before reaching home. The migration
of Hebrews from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, understood in later Hebrew thought as marking
the birth of the Israelite nation. (77–79).
Menorah: It is a seven-branched candlestick that was used in the ancient days and in modern
synagogues. It currently is the symbol for Jewish culture and sovereignty. It is also the official symbol of
Jerusalem. It is also used in many Jewish festivals and is a symbol in general for use. In the Talmud, it is
said that the middle candle was the only one that would burn all day. The seven-branched
candlestick, a Jewish symbol since ancient times, well before the widespread adoption of the six-pointed
star; the nine-branched menorah used at Hanukkah is sometimes called a hanukiah. (100).
Midrash: This is the act of adding to the body of the Bible interpretation (literal translation:
interpretation or commentary). Most midrashic commentaries are line=by-line interpretations following
the sequence of the biblical text. It is a test usually found in practises in rabbinical Judaism. It is the
written interpretation text of the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud (scriptures). It is a vital part of the
religion as it is the interpretation of the oral torah as well as the written torah. Interpretation in Jewish
traditions seems to be a major part of their religion practises, as several books were published in
relation to this form of text.Another word to represent the midrash and the exegesis. The
Hebrew summary of the oral law—inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses—arranged by topic;
edited by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE, it has an authority paralleling that of the written Torah.
Mishnah: The mishnah is the official written text of the oral torah. It and the Talmud are two major
parts that sum up the entire oral torah and are the basic legal literature in Jewish traditions. It was the