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Final Exam Review Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

World Religion – Final Exam Review Notes Dhikr: Dhikr is the most characteristic Sufi prayer. It is the devotional excercise of remembering God, the English translation of dhikr. It is usually held before the dawn or evening prayer. It consists of the repetition of the God’s name, Allah, and the Shahadah (There is no god except God. This type of devitional prayer or submission is usually paired with bodily movements and elaborate brething techniques and may also include the occasions where devotees dance in a circle. This is a ritual, devotional practice, that is performed by the Sufis who were early Muslim mystics, and a very emotional ritual. (Islam). Bar Mitzvah: A ceremony in the Jewish religion that marks the coming of age of thirteen-year-olds. In Aramaic, the term literally means ‘son of commandmants’, and celebrated for both boys and girls (Bat Mitzvah) at this tender age, which initiates them into adulthood and authorizing them for new responsibilities. This teenager is also required to take ownership of faith to pursue independence and responsibility for following Jewish traditions. Some of the teenagers do decide to continue their Jewish education after this ceremony, to act upon this ownership and shows that this person has become resposible and has reached a new age of maturity. There are three basic stages that takes place in the bar mitzvah: 1) he is called to the stand to recite a small passage from the Torah orally. 2) The derashah which is the second stage where the boy gives a public speech to the audience thanking his family for their unconditional love and care as well as his guests for attending his bar mitzvah ceremony. 3) The last stage of the bar mitzvah is the festive meal known as the Se'udah which is the festive party following the religious ceremony. In the oral reading of the Torah, the teenager reads one section from the Hewbrew Bible/Pentateuch and another passage from Prophets, in the Torah. An important material used in this is the tefillin, which can be deifned as a traditional Jewish hat worn by the person who is holding the Bar Mitzvah. (Jewish) Predestnation: The idea that God anticipates and controls all human actions and decides whether the individual in question goes to salvation or damnation. (appoints them in the direction they deserve. This can be related to the idea that muslims believe that there is a day of resurrection when God decides what happens after you die. The idea that the sovereign God has a predestined fate for everyone was first introduced by Calvin, who also played a major role in magisterial reformation. (Christianity & related to Islam) Pentateuch: The Pentateuch is the complete version of the torah, written and oral text. Mainly refers to the five books of Moses. This was truly the beginning of the Hebrew Bible. The five books are the Genesis, Exodus, Leuiticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The oral torah consists of written interpretations of the knowledge that Moses had and the events that occurred in the past. Revelations played a major part in Jewish history, as it believed that increased revelations is a way for people to learn and for God to shower his mercy on humans. It is also believed that revelations are for humans to learn from their mistakes, complete an insufficiency and to give us another chance to truly understand God’s message. Most major stories are found in the 5 books of Moses. The Pentateuch is one of the major parts of the tanakh, the complete version of the torah (oral and written). The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity. (68) Ummah: Ummah is the Arabic word for community and this can now be deifned as the Muslim community. This community involve those who are Muslim and who are bound by the Shahadah and whose lives are based on Islamic principles, Shariah. Therefore, this includes various groups of Muslims, Sunnis and Shias. The Quran refers to the Ummah as the best community because there people are invited to do good and refrain from evil. It is known as the third most intimate relationship that Muslims have, written in the Quran. - Every person is responsible both for his or her own mortality and for the mortality of the entire Muslim ummah (Q.3:104) (Islam) Tefillin: Tefillin is Phylacteries( can be deifned as a greek term for protective charm) and is mostly known as a traditional praryer garb worn by men on weekdays. It consistes of two small black boxes that hold passages from scriptures. There are two long leather straps attached to the boxes, that are used to tie the boxes to the forehead and an upperarm, facing one’s heart. The significance of the tefillin is that it is a sign of tribute to God for saving the slaves from Egypt, who participated in the journey of the Exodus. It is also refered to the traditional worn by teenage boys during their bar mitzvah. It is worn to fulfil the commandment in the Pentateuch, to bind the words of the Torah opn the hand and as frontlets between the eyes. Pious Jews were these scrolls during the daily morning prayers, except the Sabbath (which is held on Saturday. Hajj: Hajj is the annual pilgrimage to the Kaaba, the house of God in Mecca, and is the fifth pillar of Islam. This was first instituated by Abraham and his son Ishmael, after they were instructed to build the Kaaba. Hajj is essentially re-enacting the experiences of Abraraham, who is known as the father of the Prophets and the first true Muslim. It is highly recommended for all Muslims and required for those who are sane, are above a certain age of maturity, have sufficient money to do so and are in good circumstances. Hajj is a form of worship, which includes taking rounds around the Kaaba, going up and down the mountains Safa and Marwah, living in the area of Mina and throwing rocks at pillars that represent the devil. The pilgrammige is concluded with the celebration of Eid and the sacrifice of animals, commemorating the vital event in Abraham’s life where he got the order from God to sacrifice his son. Hajj should be performaed at least once in a person’s lifetime and it is believed that all past sins are forgiven, starting a whole new life for the person. One of the more special moments of this pillgrammige is the visitation to the mountain of Arafat. The cave Hira, where the Prophet Muhammad spent a lot of time is located higher up this mountain and it is believed that many prayers are granted while in this area. During this pilgrammige, there are several ruleswhile performing this pilgrimage (like men wearing only two pieces of white linen around them and women wearing very simple cotton clothing). This pilgrimage starts on the eight of Dhul-Hijjah (the twelfth month of the Islmic calendar). Glossolalia: This means speking in tongues, and refers to speaking out ecstatically in an exotic prayer language. This is a distinguished feature of charismatic movement and is believed to be a behaviour inspirised by the holy spirit. It is the protestant phenomenon and was a charismatic activity that has spread to Catholic Christiands since the 1970’s. Mi’raj: This is the miraculous night journey that the Prophet Muhammad went on. During the night, it was reported that he travelled from Mecca to Jerusalem ad then ascended to heaven, from the Masjid Al-Aqsa. The angel Gabreel comes to the Prophet, who is taking on a steed, Buraq. In heaven, the Prophet Muhammad meets other Porphets and leads them in prayer. After that, God instructs the Prophet that Muslims must pray 50 times a day. When the Prophet told this to Moses, he instructed him to decrease the number as it will be difficult for humans to manage. In increments of 5, the praryer was reduced to 5 times a day and the prophet returned back to his bed. - It is on page 271 it is useful to note that the signifigance of the event was that it made muslims certain that he had gods support. To compare and contrast the term find examples in Judaism or Christianity where Jews and Christians felt that Moses and Jesus had god's support. For example when Moses recieved the 10 commandments from god at Mt. Sinai eschatology: It is the Greek word for ‘study of the end’ and is concerned with the end of a person’s age. It is related to the theories with the apocalypse, the unveiling or the revelation. It can also be classified as the study of the apocalypse. Can be seen in all the three religions we study, with a different name. The discussions are usually about the fate of Israel as a whole or of a particularly faithful subgroup. Doctrine concerning the end of the age, from the Greek for ‘study of the end’. It os a genre of Jewish literature that emerged in the later prophetic books. The Jewish bible does not comment on this, but it was believed that after death, an individual would be in Sheol, a place where he/she is isolated from God. In Christianity, this is perceived as an after life, where God gives a judgement (life Islam’s perception of this topic). Seder: This term comes from Jewsih tradition and is tha family meal that is consumed to celebrate Passover. The term means order and is used for the ritual of the Passover supper. It is also used to refer to the six divisions of the Mishnah. During the seder service, the family reads from the Haggadah and the unleavened bread is consumed to commemorate the events of the Exodus, where people did not have time to leaven/rise their bread and acted upon God’s commandment. Nicene Creed: This is the name of the Council of Nicaea and are statements from the content from the Christian faith. It is a bit longer from the Apostles’ Cred and covers many of the same topics. It is a regular part of the services in the catholic tradition. More specifically, it is about the holy spirit and is more inclined to mention the spirit along with God, the father and Christ the son; as a part of tradic list (the trinity, the central, yet problematic Christian teaching. Since Christianity rooted from the monotheistic beliefs of Judaism, it resisted from discussing plural distinct gods and mentioned the multiple divine persons instead. It was noted that this trinity was hardly mentioned in the New Testament. It was believed that it was added in Matthew’s passage at a later time. Qiblah: The Qiblah is the direction in which Muslims pray. The direction is pointed towards the Kaaba, in north america it is north east. All mosques are also pointed in the direction of the kaaba, and have a wall indicating this direction. The act of all Muslims praying in one direction. It you look at this from space, it shows that all Muslims are pretty much praying in a huge circle (exactly same to the set of the Kaaba and its surrounding area). Therefore, all directions (north, east, south west, are different in relation to the country you are in). The initial direction of the Qiblah was pointing towards Jerusalem, then Prophet Muhammad received revelation of the n
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