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Religion Study Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

Religion Study Notes: JUDAISM Apocalypse: the final battle between the forces of darkness and light, can otherwise been seen as the ending of one stage of lifestyle with the prospect of starting a new stage. The essense were believed to be a priestly group who followed the teachings of “The Righteous Teacher” and were a sect in the Hebrew society. They anticipated the apocalypse and had left Jerusalem after the acceptance of an unwanted member into the circle to prepare for the battle. ^Was also preached by Jesus during the rise of Christianity and urged people to admit to their sins as radical change was soon approaching ^Also comparable to Eschatology; the study of the end of time, no battles, looks at thoughts on afterlife and the judgement from God to an individual Berith: the Hebrew term for the word “covenant”, otherwise known as a contract. The covenant was where the religious aspect was centered around; it was the formal agreement between God and his people. It was expected that, in return for obeying his word, God would grant his people safety. ^An example is seen with Abraham and God, where Abraham is to follow God’s will and in return he and his people would be granted the land of Canaan ^refer to theme of obedience/disobedience & rewards/punishment Documentary Hypothesis: otherwise known as “Wellhausen’s Theory” after Julius Wellhausen. From a scholars perspective, the Pentateuch was written in many different styles and the settings and writings seemed to be from different time periods. Wellhausen came up with the theory that there were 4 major sources from which the material making up the Pentateuch came from making it a composite creation Each source given represent a written interpretation of an oral tradition  The J source; this source used the name Yaweh for god in its text, and emphasizes the role of Abraham The E source; used the term Elohist to refer to god and claimed that the sacred mountain was mount horeb not Sinai The D source; from the word Deuteronomy otherwise known as the book of law; this source governs people’s morality as its central idea revolves around rewards and punishment The P source; the priestly source was thought to be the later contributions to the Pentateuch and hold the blueprints necessary to restore the sacred Temple. Diaspora: The Jews were scattered outside of plestine during the Babylonian Exile ^similar to the way Adam and Eve were exiled out of the Garden of Eden Eschatology: can be seen as the study of the end, because the Jewish bible didn’t give any thoughts on what happened to an individual after death. There were no thoughts on an afterlife existing because there was no real distinction between the body and the soul; thus there was no reason for thoughts on the soul being able to exist after a person died. What mattered more was living through ones descendants and carrying on the lineage. It was believed that after death an individual would be in Sheol, a place of isolation from God (similar the Hades, in Greek) where weakness existed and it was not seen as heaven or hell. ^In Christianity Eschatology perceived the afterlife as being a place where one of resurrected for god to give judgement as to whether or not they should be sent to heaven or hell. The Exile: The transition from the ancient Hebrew religion to Judaism and Jews. During this time period (6 century), Hebrew leaders were sent into exile, the cult of an ancient kingdom was now progressing into a religious heritage. There were social and religious changes that followed. The Jews were a minority population and had dispersed, life was more urban which meanth that agricultural rituals now needed to be rethought/revised. The bigger impact was on the temple, worshipping was now more congregational and during this time the synagogue was created. Exodus: The Exodus was the story of how the Israelites left Egypt after being put through slavery. It focuses on the connection between God and Moses. In the story, God request that Moses asks the pharaoh to release him and his people; upon denial, God then sends a plague on the people of Egypt but spares moses and his people. Moses then leads the Israelites across the Yam Suf ^the story of the Exodus can be seen as a metaphor now for all Jews as the transition from slavery to freedom, everyone in the Jewish culture can identify with this story with the celebration of Passover Menorah: The menorah is a seven branched candle that was seen in most jewish household, it eventually became a symbol of the culture before the six pointed star, the 9 branched candle stick is used in Hanukah Messiah: The term messiah, during the Hellenistic times, referred to a king or prophet that would eventually lead Israel to victory, in more realistic terms the messiah was usually referring to the King. ^the Jews were persuaded into believing that Christ was the messiah of their time, other messiahs could be seen as moses for leading the people out of Egypt and Abraham for leading the people to Canaan ^Before the Exile is was thought that God would raise up an ideal king as the saviour of the Jews Midrash: A biblical interpretation of the bible by the Rabbis, their ultimate task was to explain inconsistencies or conflicts between passages in the bible. A good example would be the occasion in the genesis where humans were created twice. In the genesis 1, god had created both man and woman together; in the genesis 2, god had created Eve from Adam’s rib. It was interpreted by the rabbis that Adam did indeed have two wives, but his first one (from the genesis 1) had proven to be unsatisfactory and so Eve was created. The first wife was given the name Lilith and played the role of a demon in many Jewish folk t
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