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RLGA02 Descriptive World Religions Exam Review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

World Religions Exam Review Terms: 10 terms x 5 marks=50 marks Essay Questions: 2/3 choices=2 questions x 12 marks=24 marks Long Essay Question: requires sub questions and concept map =26 marks Bonus Questions= "who were two prominent figures in the magisterial reform?". Martin Luther and John Calvin. All essay questions are comparative 4 themes that will be present in exam: (think about relations between divine, human and earthy realm Language (Oral and Written Text): - Divine language vs. human language= oral, written, divine and human - Difference between Divine Language and Human Language. Revelation is seen as divine and interpretation is human. We see revelation in different languages (Judaism--- >Greek, Christianity--->Greek, Islam--->Arabic. - - Oral and written text, the divine languages (Hebrew, Arabic and Greek) and the human language - Oral language is important in this tradition as moses received the 10 commandments orally as an oral torah/contract (in Judaism) - in Islam, written text would be the Quran and oral text (in history) was the Sunnah, now translated into written text - in Christianity, the written text would be the bible and oral text could be the history Sacred/Social Roles: - How the messiah became an idealized notion and how it is maintained by the specific roles appointed in each respective tradition=focus question 1. The concept of the priest being an exclusive human role 2. The concept of the prophet possessing the sacred role 3. Rabbi/Imam's social roles=context of temples, mosque and synagogue 4. Imam as absolute necessary mediator= sacred role  Keep in mind of roles and how they are appointed!(focus) - God picks those who he believes are worthy and assigned them a role, noah and abraham both take on social and scared roles. Noah has to build an ark to save the animals and humans to start again(sacred/social role) Anointed one by god to save the animals. Abraham also takes the sacred/social role as he is asked to sacrifice his own son to prove his allegiance(sacred role) god has other bigger plans for abraham. Abraham also preaches through god to stop human sacrifice(another example of Abraham taking on a scared role/social role). He becomes the mediator through god and the leader of his own people(social) as god promises the land of canaan if they are obedient. - God assigned a new figure a scared role: moses. He was the one sent to free the Israelites from Egyptian slavery. - the example of the Messiah being seen differently in the context of Judaism and Christianity. There are social and sacred roles in traditions, e.g. social role (priest, rabbi,imam) and sacred role (prophet, Imam (capital meaning a sacred mediator). - - Messiah is said to be "king or anointed individual". In the Jewish tradition they don't believe that the Messiah has arrived yet. A sacred role would be the role of the prophet/messenger in the Islamic context. Another social role could be the role of the rabbi or imam. Shi'as believe that the Imam is the absolute mediator between muslims and the Quran, they are necessary for the religion to unpack "cosmic saviours". - Messiah--> anointed one, handpicked, means the chosen one, usually to anoint this person they would sprinkle the person with holy water and oil - Judaism--> According to the Jewish tradition, one of the conquerers Cyrus, the Ruler of Persia is seen as the Messiah.In this context the Messiah is a heroic figure. The Messiah is seen as a messenger and is seen as a political or spiritual ruler. The idea was that a kingly or military leader was coming to rescue the Hebrews and give them their rights back. Matthew could be a connection between both Judaism and Christianity--> he wrote one of the Christian gospels BUT he was also considered the promised Messiah of Israel. - In Christianity--> The Christian tradition also has a Messiah, this person is Jesus. In this tradition the messiah has a different context however, the messiah is seen as the cosmic saviour ( shows parellel to John's "In the Beginning there was the Word" --> Jesus is seen as the word made Flesh--> another small parallel could be that the Qur'an is seen as the Word in book form). Jesus as the Messiah save the whole universe and saves us from the Christian Idea of death because we are all sinners. Jesus is known as Jesus Christos or Christ--> Christ means messiah - In Islam--> The idea of a messiah that arches from the tradition of Judaism could explain how the messiah is seen as a prophet, messenger, king or priest. Within the Islamic tradition this role is played by the imam ( the person who leads the prayer). In the Shia tradition the Imam ( note the Capital I) takes on this role and is the absolute mediator between all Muslims and the Qur'an, which in and of itself plays a sacred role. Islam back-reads from the other traditions. In the times of Moses, Abraham and Jacob during the Jewish tradition it was believed that a messiah was coming. The Christian tradition interpreted this messiah to be Jesus Christ. The Islamic tradition backreads from Christianity and says that the final prophet ( Messiah) is Muhammed. Identity Formation/Tradition: - Imagine that each tradition is a person seeking a concrete identity-keep in mind of the implications of having a particular identity or seeking one(focus of question-through a historians perspective, what had to happen? what happened as a direct result? what did this direct result have on the bigger picture? how did it contribute to the overall process of identity formation?) 1. Christianity: Protestant Reformation, Luther discredited the Roman Catholic Church, the split has a huge implications that are still felt in the present reflected by the diversity of Christianity=contributes to overall identity 2. Sunni/Shi'a Split: the split reflects a solid identity being formed, the consensus achieved, allowed for a codified tradition. Once a solid base was agreed upon up until the prophet passed away, the issue of succession becomes the basis for the split. Sunni believing in old tradition, while the shi'a developed an affinity towards family ties. They believed that ali should have been the rightful successor to Muhammad as he was direct family of Muhammad. Again always revealing a tie to the past as influence in the present context. 3. Judaism: This tradition started as an answer to the sufferings of the Israelites. It heavily relied on the concept of covenants( divine agreements with god), if the people obeyed they would be rewarded with their own salvation. Their tradition has persevered despite all the persecution. The wave metaphor here comes to life. Depending on the time period, certain aspects were added while other taken away to better accommodate the reality of many Israelites. The basis for their identity comes from a covenant formed that gives the people an exclusivity, if they obey they are promised salvation. - In any religion, the scared scriptures or bible give the tradition an identity. Codified and agreed upon, the bible comes to represent a unique way of seeing things that will ultimately lead to reward if practiced. - Pentateuch: 5 books of moses=genesis, exodus, leviticus, numbers and deuteronomy, as well as the proph
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