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[RLGA02] MID-TERM NOTES- From Judaism to Christianity

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

Judaism ■Apocalypse -Mean “Uncovering” /”disclosure” in Greek -Terminology of early Jewish and Christian literature -A revelation of hidden things given by god to chosen saints -Apocalyptic literature flourished in Hellenistic era -Babylonians and Persian ➣ The righteous people v.s the evildoers -Evildoers who aren't following the laws that were sent to the people by God -Good being rewarded for their steadfastness to obey god's commandments ➣”Unveiling” / Revelation -Expect final battle between force of darkness and light -Establish centre of priestly purity in preparation of apocalypse ➣Associated messiah with divine overturning of existing order -Return of the Messiah will bring justice and peace ■ Berith - the Hebrew word for covenant. - Special relationship between God and Jewish people -e.g. Covenant between Israel and the people of Shechem -e.g. David become king by making berith to god ■ Diaspora - Jews outside their homeland of Israel, dispersal of the Jews -Symbolized as scattering seeds, refers as “agriculture culture” -Began with Babylonian Exile in 586 BCE -When Cryus allowed Jews to return to Judah, some Jews see him as Messiah -some of the Jews preferred to stay in Bablonia, instead of Jerusalem ■ Documentary Hypothesis - Theory which Pentateuch was not written by one person (Moses) ■ Eschatology -Doctorine concerning the end of the age / Study of the end of time -Refer as “Study of the end” in greek -Time of the eschatology = the end time when there’s no more -The future of the world end-> either go to heaven or hell - Punishment and rewards are a developing concept in each of the three faiths and eschatology was created around the first ideas of the end of time in Christianity ■Exile -Deportation of Jewish leadership from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by conquering Babylonians -Jews were in 50 years of exile, happened in 586 BCE -Rupture of local Israelite political, ritual, agricultural institutions -e.g. Temples are destroyed, no role in priest or rituals or sacrifices, Retain tradition by form of gathering in meeting houses -Synagogues: the “Community”, help tradition continues to remain -Develop Liturgy as a substitute: System of having formal prayer -Transition from Israelite religion to Judaism ■Exodus -Migration of Hebrews from Egypt under leadership of Moses -Understood in later Hebrew thought as birth of the Israelite nation -Ten commandments follow this event: -Housed in Ark of the Covenant -as central part of Tabernacle: a portable temple -Received at Mount Sinai where two visits to God made for finalized the commandments -Israelites wandered in desert for 40 years until they find the promised land of Canaan -Canaan: Later also referred as “Israel” ■Menorah: -The seven-branched candlestick -Jewish symbol since ancient times, before widespread adoption of the six pointed star -No longer in use in modern practice in Judaism -Rather using 9 pointed candlestick for the celebration Hanukkah -Used to symbolize the miracle of one day of oil had lasted for 8 days ■Midrash: -Commentary of scripture, midrash=exegesis -Activity of interpreting the Torah, or know as exegesis -Debating the meaning of the written content -Part of rabbinical Judaism where they perform exegesis to interpret biblical texts -Provide commentary or ingenious explanations to odd logic of stories -e.g. Adam and Eve, the creation of man ■Mishnah: -The oral Torah/Moses’ wisdom that eventually put into a book -The Hebrew summary of the oral law -Inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses -Collection of essays and comments got tag on to Mishnah ■Passover -Major spring festival of agricultural rebirth and renewal -e.g. Lamb’s blood , angel of death -Follows along with the reward and punishment theme -Jews followed God’s instruction and their first born sons are spared -Israelites put lamb’s blood on the door as a mark in Egypt -Historical dimension by association with hasty departure of Israelites from Egypt under Moses’ leadership ■Pentateuch -First five books of Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), ascribed by tradition to Moses -Genesis, Number, Exodus, Deuteronomy, Leviticus -Tanakh : Entire Hebrew Bible -Consisting Torah (Law), Nevi’im (prophets), Ketuvim (Sacred writing) ■Rabbi -Teacher, or an expert on interpretation of Torah in Roman times -Since priestly sacrifices ceased with temple destruction, has been a spiritual leader -Descendant of Pharisees, scholarly view the religion as interpretation -Written part of Judaism become important -Rabbinical Judaism developed in an attempt to preserve religion, -seeing as exiles and invasions destroy the community of Jewish people -Ultimately destroys the gathering of Jewish people and tradition no longer part of their lives -e.g. Babylonian Exile, some of the Jews didn’t return their old lifestyle -e.g. Exegesis= Facilitators of faith do not have same authority as priest ■Sabbath -Seventh day of the week -Observed as a day of rest from ordinary activity by Jews since ancient time th -Based on Creation story of God creating universe and took 7 day to rest -Jews expected to follow this practice, begins on sunset of Friday and ends sunset Saturday ■Tanakh -Three part Hebrew scriptural collection -Composed of Torah, Nevi’im, Ketuvim -Rabbis divided Torah into 3 sections: Law, Prophets and writing -Developed in rabbinical Judaism - Nevi’im : Prophetic writing about their stories, warning or judges give to people Ketuvim: Writing , songs, poetry Torah: Teaching or instruction, the five books of Moses ■Talmud -Consists of Mishnah and Gemarah - The groups of writing, the interpretive code -to help figure out what is happening in the Hebrew Bible -Two versions o
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