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David Perley

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Week 7 Feb 28 Christianity: Differentiation; the Protestant Reformation Readings: WRWT, Chapter 4, pp. 188-191; 209-221 FEB 28: RITUAL /ARTIFACT ASSIGNMENT DUE ON TURNITIN COM Week 8 Mar 6 Islam: The Life of Muhammad; the Qur’an; Early Development Readings: WRWT, Chapter 5, pp. 268-278; 297-302 Week 9 Mar 13 Sufism Readings: Chapter 5, pp. 285-291 Week 10 Mar 20 Sunni and Shi’a; Islamic Law Readings: Chapter 5, pp. 279-291 Week 11 March 27 Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Modernity Readings: WRWT, Chapter 3: pp. 141-162; Chapter 4: 239-259; Chapter 5: 305-317 Week 7's Readings GREEK ORTHODOX TRADITION - Following councils were accepted by both Eastern Orthodox & Western Catholic branches: >- Nicaea in 325 >- Epheseus, 431 - Purely Eastern Orthdox bishop composed, >- Chalcedon, 451 Chalecdon's Declaration - sides with view that Christ was individual w/ both divine + human nature "Consubstantial" describes the relationship among the Divine persons of the Christian Trinity and connotes that God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit are "of one being" in that the Son is "generated" ("born" or "begotten") "before all ages" or "eternally" of the Father's own being, from which the Spirit also eternally "proceeds." Monophysite Christians - MONOPHYSITISM - Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human. Belief about Jesus's status Monophysites Greek & Latin-speaking churches - believed that Jesus is one person, with - believed that Jesus has both divine & just a divine nature. human nature. - to convert them back to Eastern Orthodox notion, proposal made about Christ: >- has 2 natures, divine & human, but only one mode of activity (energia) or will (thelema) - result: refused prior to end of century (ie. 500CE) by Monophysites >- around end of century, many of these ppl being converted to Islam Eastern Mediterranean - majority of the empire there stayed as Greek orthodox >- followed the doctrines formulated by the Council of Chalcedon. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantines) - more stable, prosperous w/in 7-8th century - more likely to adopt intellectual life than Western empire (suffering from barbarian attacks) -last +1k yrs after Constantine -Greek Church did not end, even when Turks spread thro. their domain & took control of Constantinopole in 1453 Byztanine Church w/in Turkey - tolerated under Islam - prohibited from preaching - self-governing relig community is what it became - patriarch being their civil ruler - Greece gains independence from Turkey - 1821 - Istanbul (new name for Constantinople) remained Turkish (so what happened is the Turks took over Greece, and even took control of one of the main cities of the Greek Orthodox tradition) Term to describe emperor involvement in Church = caesaropapism Theology --> John of Damascus - Greek theologian (675CE - 749CE) - major work= Foundatio nof Wisdom (Pege gnoseos); comprehensive treatise discussing theological topics - represented the sophisticated nature of Eastern Mediteranean's culture --> Medieval Byztanine Theology: Mysticism Simeon >- monastery owner in Constantinople >- wrote about qualities of spiritual life at that 't' >- key theme from his work - God's close relationship to faithful individuals Hesychasts - formulated a devotional practiced that had central focus being to recite this certain prayer ("Jesus Prayer") - "Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner" Barlaam the Calabrian - philosopher - held view that one can only know God in next life Gregory Palamas - agrees w/ Barlaam that God is beyond the human realm - God's E reaches humans in way similar to the light of Christ Christianizing the Slavs Eastern Orthodoxy - refers to type of Christianity that was originated in Byzantine empire and spreading to various communities in Eatern Europe - ex. 19th century - Orthodox missionaries went to Slavic ppls >- to preach, they used local lang. insetad of Greek >- by using local lang, this promoted dvpmt of indepmt, local churches with strong sense of identity based on lang. Missionary Effort in 19th century - first accomplished by Cyril & Methodius, 2 Greek Orthodox brothers - 862 - travelled to Moravia >- there they preached to ppl in their local lang, and made translations of Bible & its literature into local lang (=Slavonic) Romania - formerly was under Roman Catholic Church rule, but then was overtaken by Eastern Orthodox during period of Bulgarian ruling Other areas of Eastern Europe - converted by Roman Catholic missionaries >- introducted lang of relig literature being Latin >- centralized control of area by Church => reason why Latin Alphabet used by Catholic civilians like Croatians, Sloveans, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Lithuanians, Hungarians Russian Orthodoxy - centred w/in Ukraine - pagan ruler named Vladamir converted to Christianity so he could marry Byzantine emperor's sister >- formed alliance w/ Byzantine empire >- vigorously promoted Christianity, and he used more forceful ways to convert his subj's rather than persuasive Fall of Kiev - when Kiev was taken over by Mongols (1237) - Moscow now central area for Russian religion & politics Moscow - created churches, convent (F monasteries) - strived to strengthen relationships it had w/ Turkish empire - Russian missionaries then spread to Siberia to their ppl, hoping to preach and establish political sys. like that in Moscow 1917 - 1989 - Russia (Communist state at this time) showed little tolerance to any form of religion - Christianity managed to survive by being inherited (staying w/in family lines) After 1989 - Russian Orthodox Church was again church favoured by state - more freedom given to Catholics, Protestants Late 1990s and beyond - state not tolerant to foreign missionaries - ex. 2006 law looked carefully at bank acc'ts that were set up by foreign organizations in their country >- money likely confiscated, so couldn't support missions financially, and so missionary efforts in Russia were diminished Yugoslavia - changed from being a secular state to one occupied by multiple religious civilians in 1990s >- ie. Catholia Croatians, Muslim Bosnians & Albanians, Orthodix Serberians CONSTANTINOPLE AND ROME After Council of Chalcedon - further segregration b/ween Greek Christianity and Latin Christianity branch - theological formulation was main reason >- Greek Church held in their Niacene Creed that Holy Spirit came from the Father (filioque rejected) >- Latin Church said it came from both Father and Son (filioque accepted) Photius, 867 = Patriach of Constantinople (Greek Orthodox religious official) - publicly criticized Latin missionaries.. >- coming into Bulgaria (which he claimed to be Greek land), >- for accepting filioque (and Son) is part of Niacene Creed Next 2 Decades 867-987 - one party existed that went against the filioque addition & also criticized the pope (partof Latin Church) - opponent party supported the filioque addition & criticized Photius Issue of Authority - without permisin from universal Church council, Roman Catholic Church added filoque part of Niacene creed - by doing this, felt it was right for them to make centre of authority claim (ie. pope in charge) >- pope is centre of authority Some Contrast from Greek Orthodox Churches - authority is equally distributed to 5 impt bishops (aka patriarches) - instead of one person being authority, rather decisions come from council of bishops Final Break b/ween Rome & Constantinople -1054 >- preparations made for this prior, and preparations also made after to unite two branches together again Differences of Orthodox Church from Roman Catholic Church - honoured & respected icons - didn't include filioque part into Niacene creed - allowed their clergy to marry (ie. don't have to be celibate) - for Bible reading & other religious literature, used lang other than Latin *- refused to recog. controlling pos. of Christian religion being the pope EASTERN-RITE CATHOLIC CHURCHES - As the Roman Catholic missionaries tried to get converts among Eastern Orthodox Christians, this established more churches in Rome that were siding w/ Eastern Orthodox branch >- kept impt aspects of Eastern tradition: 1) using loc. languages for relig. 2) baptism 3) priests allowed to mary >- but majority of their higher ranked officials were officers coming from celibate clergy THE LATIN TRADITION The Papacy - catholic = the whole, or all-embracing or universal - Christendom (domain of Christianity) - synthesis of Christian religion,
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