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Religion midterm terms.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Simon Appolloni

1. Maccabean Revolt - also known as Judah the hammer, was a rebellion sparked by modin mattathias the hasmonean (a priest) who refused to pray to Greek gods). Greeks come and break violations by killing pig on altar. Called Maccabean revolt because the Judean rebel group called Maccabees against the Seleucid empire 2. Documentary hypothesis- The theory (1894)that the Pentateuch was not written by one person, Moses, but a compilation of from multiple sources over a long period of time 3. Temple Mount- 4. Prophets- They are the intermediaries used by God to communicate with his people. Their message is not their own but gods words. Prophetic writing btw 9th and 5th century are clear, have great social criticism, and was very poetic. they receive their messages from visions (thought to be) and usually they are standing outside their awareness and conduct 5. Babylonian Exile- 586 BCE when the Judean Kingdom fell, Solomon's temple was demolished and down for 3 generations and the Hebrew leaders were sent to exile. transition from Hebrew tradition from ancient kingdom to religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. Jews were dispersed and their heritage was lost because no more agricultural life so some rules and rituals had to be rethought 6. Hellenistic Judaism- The fall of Persians by Alexander the great in 331BCE where Greeks were accepted by a lot of meditarrian people and their languages and cultures stuck and used widely. The Judean started to lose touch with their original knowledge of Hebrew to a point where all biblical knowledge was the ones that was present in the bible translated by Greeks 7. Moses- he is a messenger of god. Also known as leader and lawgiver of Exodus. Moses was head of migration from Mesopotamia to eastern civilization. Basically descendants are first sent to Egypt but after 400 years Moses leads them back home. Moses encounters god in form of flames on a bush that isn’t engufled by it. He mentions he is the patriacrhial lineage of Abraham, isaaac, and jacob and his real name is YHWH which is written by scholars as Yahweh. Now adays not even written like that substituted for adonay or doubble y or hwith apostrophe 8. Abraham and Sarah - Abraham was first key patriach appointed by god originally name was abram but god changed it. God asked everyone to be circumsized so they can be identified. God asked him to sacrifice his son to prove loyalty but didnt end up happening. First son Ismael was with a mistress and his son, Isaac, with Sarah. Sarah and Abraham seen to be cooperative and very direct. Sarah has affect on many of the decisions in the house. 9. Passover- the major spring festival of agricultural rebirth and renewal, given a historical dimenension by association with the hasty departure of the israelities from egypt under Moses' leadership. 10. Diaspora- "Dispersal", the Jewish world outside of the ancient Israel. Started with the babylonian exile 11. Septuagint- early 3rd century BCE the Hebrew knowledge was only found from bible and had to be trasnlated into Greek. This edition was called Septuagint. For Jews in alexandria the Greek bible was less the object of mediation and literature study and the editors of Septuagint took 3 divisions of the Hebrew scripture- law, prophets, and writings 12. Menorah- 7 branched candlestick, Jewish symbol since ancient times, well before the widespread adoption of the 6-pointed star; 9 branched menorah used at hanukkah is sometimes called a hanukiah 13. YHWH- The devine name of god that he but scholars yahweh. Jewish people substitute YHWH for adonay 14. Second Commonwealth - 15. Hanukkah- 8 day holiday to commemorate the rededication of the 2nd temple ( holy temple) that happened during the Maccabean revolt against seleucid empire. During this holiday you light the menorah each night until the 8th day. Happens duirng the 25th day of Kiselv (late Nov- late Dec time). 16. Tanakh- the Hebrew bible that consists of the law (Torah) , prophets (Nevi`im) and sacred wriitngs ( Hewbrew Ketuvim). Tanakh is the word that was derived from the acroynm(T-N-KH) 17. Midrash- it is the commentary on scripture; biblical interpetations. Most midrash are line by line interpretation followed by sequence of biblical text 18. Mishnah- Hebrew summary of oral law inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses. edited by rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE making it the oldest datable document. Divided into 6 texts: Seeds(agriculture), festivals, women, damages, holy things (rituals), and purifications. Also seen as the skeleton for Talmund (oralization of it). 19. Rabbi Judah -when babylonians took over and the 1st temple was destroyed for disobedience the judeans were exiled. The tradition survived when judah and others unified and met up and wrote everything down. Although not a temple but it was then the idea of synagogue started because they met up to discuss scriptures. Judah was the repsresneted of yahweh and the destruction of the temple brought confidence. Before that 2 Hebrew tribes lived in the southern kingdom of Judah 20. Talmud- collection 63 tractates (treatises) under 6 orders (mishnah became skeleton for Talmud). Talmund is consisted of hewbrew mishnah of rabbi judah with one of two body commentary known as gemarah (Hebrew for completion). Palenstinian Talmud
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