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RGNA02: Religion Exam Review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

RELIGION – EXAM REVIEW Key Terms Judaism  Bar Mitzvah:Aramaic terms “Son of Commandments” - title given to a 13 year old boy when he is initiated into adult ritual responsibilities, some branches of Judaism also celebrate a Bat Mitzvah for girls - Bat Mitzvah “Daughter of the commandment” - this coming of age ritual – regular part of every congregation's weekly worship - teen reads two selections from Hebrew Bible: one fromPentateuch (5 books of Moses which is the first section of the bible) and one from the second section; the Prophets - ceremony signifies an arrival at the age of ritual and moral responsibility - also allows them to be accounted towards the minyan (as 10 ppl are needed for group prayer) - allows them to be asked to read aloud from sacred scripture and recite blessings that are part of synagogue service - the scripture that the Bat/Bar Mitzvah reads in public for first time is the Torah – blessings they recite express the values of the community – they then give thanks for the scripture that served as a guide for Israel people – Jerusalem and dynasty of David are mentioned - the ceremony may differ from one congregation to the next – may be in the local language others all in Hebrew - after service = luncheon/dinner to celebrate the teens success and family's good fortune - rite of passage to maturity - it is now always part of Sabbath service and whole congregation takes place - this is like a kind of elementary school graduation from the special religious training the child has undergone  Pentateuch: the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy) – ascribed by tradition to Moses, but regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity - five books of Moses – First section of the Bible - Could be written by hand on wooden rollers (scrolls): Sefer Torah or bound as a book: Humash - this is one of the selections from the Hebrew Bible that the teenagers of Bar/Bat Mitzvah must read - JeanAstruc first suggested that the Pentateuch might be a composite creation – called attention to diff in names used to refer to God Documentary Hypothesis: The theory (1894) that the Pentateuch was not written by one person, Moses, but made over a long period of time with the help of a number of sources. - this was Wellhausen's theory and was criticized by traditional Jews, Christians, and Muslims – because of its humanizing assimilation - one of the great intellectual achievements of the nineteenth century - theory based on four major blocks of material in the Pentateuch, first books of Moses. - Samaritans: only accepted first five books of Moses as canonical but differed from Hebrew Pentateuch in that it had references to a messianic figure like Moses  tefillin: small black leather boxes, aka phylacteries (means protective charm – but the boxes have no protective value) , containing words of scripture, tied to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs - traditional prayer garb worn by men on weekdays - boxes are meant to fulfill the commandment in Deuteronomy 6 – to bind the words of Torah upon the hands as a frontiers between the eyes - Pious Jews put on tefillin for every morning prayer every day except Sat (Sabbath) - already used in first century - Orthodox Jews use them regularly for aid to prayer to concentrate the mind and fulfill commandment - Reform Jews have suspended the usable of them  eschatology: doctrine concerning the end of the age - this doctrine was put into the genre of apocalyptic Jewish literature - a topic that would have been in these types of writings would concern what would happen after dead with one's personality, and where it would go. The Hebrew's answered this with the answer, Sheol, underground place similar to the Greek Hades – this is not heaven or hell – it is a place of weakness and estrange from God  seder: “order”: the term used for the ritual passover supper celebrated in the home; the six divisions of the Mishnah are also called orders or seders - a family meal that celebrates the passover (associated with the home like Sabbath) - the major festival of passover is in spring – season of agricultural rebirth and renewal - the food made during the 8 days of the festival must be prepared with newly cleaned equpment – Moses also lead Isralites out of slavery in Egpyt to promised land  Mishnah: Hebrew summary of the oral law which was inherited from Pharisaim and ascribed to Moses. This has an authority paralleling that of the written Torah - the Mishnah and the Palestinian Gemarah = Palestinian Talmud or the Jerusalem Talmud - same Mishnah and the other Gemarah from Babylonia = Babylonian Talmud - the Mishnah, along with the Gemarah are printed in a column in the centre of the page - Mishnah is in Hebrew while both germarahs are inAramaic - along with the five books of Moses there are another body of precedent and interpretation that had been passed down orally from Moses = Mishnah – this is contrasted with the written books - Mishnah is one of the two parts of of the legal literature of the Jewish (the other is Talmud) - this is entirely new kind of text - has it's own topical arrangement in sect orders: seeds, festivals, women, damages, holy things and purifications - the oldest datable rabbinic document - part of the “Torah” – oral law  midrash: commentary on scriptures - unlike Mishnah, midrash followed the structure of the books that made up the Hebrew canon - part of the Torah – books of the oral law – Tanakh - early midrashim – three books: Mekhilta for Exodus, Sifra for Leviticus and Sifre for Numbers and Deuteronomy - the rabbis collected and added to the body of Bible interpretation once the biblical corpus had been fixed - the rabbinic writers took it as their task to understand the full significance of the biblical text and resolve the contradictions between two passages ex two passages in Genesis about the creation of man (Adam and Eve)  Septuagint: the greek translating of the Hebrew scriptures, made inAlexandria in Hellenistic times - during this time Egypt adopted Greek names and styles and by early third century BCE, knowledge of Hebrew had declined that the Bible had to be translated to Greek = Septuagints - the translation was product of seventy scholars who worked independently but produced identical drafts -> only a legend but established both religious authority of Septuagint and legitimacy of biblical translation – yet Islam only sees Arabic Qur’an as authentic and translation is only interpretation - Latin for seventy - took the three divisions of Hebrew scripture (Law, Prophets, Writings) and rearranged them in 4 genres (law, history, poetry and prophecy)  Sabbath: 7 day of the week, observed by Jews since ancient times as a day of rest from ordinary activity - Friday, some Jews go to synagogue services – Orthodox services shorter and close to sunset and Conservative and Reform longer and after Sabbath dinner - Sabbath is a primary sign of the enduring covenant with God - Orthodox Jews do no work on Sabbath – Conservative and Reform are not as strict - in NAchicken is a classic Sabbath evening meal - Judaism: a day of prayer and public assembly in the synagogue (place of worship for Jewish people) – begins at the sunset on Friday and until sunset on Saturday – most sacred day in the Jewish calender – a sign of the enduring covenant with God (read prayer from exodus)– the day God rested after the six days of creating the universe (genesis) – the coming of age ritual (Bar/Bat Mitzvah is part of the every congregation's weekly worship- Sabbath) – Pious Jews put on tefillin for morning prayers every day expect Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath - Islam/Muslim: unlike Judaism and Christianity, Island has no Sabbath specified for test 0 Friday = jum'ah (assembly) for congregational prayers  berith: Hebrew term for covenant, a special relationship between God and the Jewish people - contract, for example the covenant between God andAbraham, Jacob, Moses and people of Israel – for example, the Covenant Moses and God had – Moses was told by God, through a covenant to free his people. - central organizing concept in ancient Hebrews' religion was the covenant - God promisesAbraham that he and his descendants will have Canaan the promise land but must do his side of the contract too – how God desiresAbraham's descendants to behave – ex testedAbraham's loyalty by asking him to kill his son Christianity  predestination: the notion that God anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains every individual to either salvation or damnation - ex for John Calvin, the dominant intellectual leader of the Reformation, God is absolutely sovereign, initialing all actions, both creating and redeeming the world – humans are so sinful as to be dependent on divine grave for salvation and God has predestined every person to salvation or damnation - in Netherlands, Calvin's teaching of predestination was challenged by JacobusArimius (he believed that God's sovereignty was compatible with human free will)  glossolalia: speaking in “tongues”; a distinguishing feature of charismatic movements (which is characterized by spiritual gifts like this) - speak out escatatically in an exotic prayer language - inspired by the holy spirit - this charismatic activity has spread to Catholic Christians since 1970s - these experience had emphasis on experience of receiving the gift of holiness – these congregations referred to as Holiness Churches - the intensity of the feeling associated with that experience of these churches were often physically – either than glossolalia people would roll in aisles of meeting (holy rollers)  Nicene Creed: brief formal statements of doctrinal belief, often recited in unison by congregation - ancient formulation - named for the Council of Nicaea in 325 - longer than theApostles' Creed – covers many of the same topics but in more detail and is a regular part of services in the Catholic tradition - compared to theApostles Creed; the Nicene Creed is more specific about Holy Spirit and more inclined to mention the Spirit along with God the father and Christ the son as part of a triadic list - the differences between them reflect the emergence of the explicit doctrine of the Trinity ( a central Christian teaching) - Christians now assume that the doctrine of the Trinity was present since beginning  transubstantiation: the Catholic doctrine that in the Eucharistic service, the bread and wine are miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Christ - the mass of Christians - according to this doctrine, the words 'this is my body' and this is my blood are literally and mysteriously effective, transforming the water and wine of the mass into the body and blood of christ - once latin was no longer spoken by congregation, the moment of transubstantiation was indicated by the ringing of a small bell – this moment is one of mystery and miracle - this started as Trent reiterated the Catholic understanding of the mass as a sacrifice - this moment recalls the Last Supper Jesus had with his disciples before he was crucified  Eucharist: ritual re-enactment of Jesus' sacrifice of himself, this was taken from the story about Jesus sharing of the bread and wine as his body and blood as the final Passover meal with his disciples – Orthodox Christians call it the liturgy – Catholics the mass, - Protestants, the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion - the sacrament in which believers consume consecrated bread and wine in commemoration of the (Passover) Last Supper, where he declared the bread and wine to be his body and blood - common to all branches of Christianity - called Eucharist because Jesus gives thanks before giving out the bread and wine “thanksgiving” - many protestants call it Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper or orthodox – call it the service as the Liturgy - heart of ritual = Eucharistic prayer – priest or minister repeats the accounts of Jesus' last supper and invites the congregation to receive communion be taking a portion of the bread and wine - one of the seven sacraments of the Christian religion - for protestants narrowed the list down to just baptism and Eucharist -in the past, the congregation had a limited amount of times to take Eucharist weekly  excommunication: formal expulsion from the Church, particularly, the Roman Catholic Church, for doctrinal error or moral misconduct - ex Marcion (author of a blueprint that was rejected) he was the son of a bishop from Black Sea and his teachings led to this excommunication (formal expulsion) from the Church in 144 – but he still made his ideas known – Paul’s contrast between law and gospel became Marcion's contrast between Old and New Testament – between one God and another - even if his ideas were rejected, he helped int he Church's definition of its scriptural canon; old and new testaments - From the Rule of St. Benedict: extent of the excommunication is to be regulated based on gravity of fault – decided by the abbot's discretion – ex some would take meals alone – exculted from common table  indulgences: releases from time in purgatory (a kind of holding area for the departed in the course of their passage from death to the next existence) ; the selling of indulgences was one of the abuses that led to the Protestant Reformation - Martin Luther was anAugustinian monk and scholar who objected the Church's practice of selling indulgences - during the Protestant Reformation - Luther tacked up a list of 95 propositions (theses), criticizing the sale of indulgences and other aspects of Church practice  Puritanism: In Catholic doctrine, the realm to which the soul proceeds after death for some unspecified period in preparation for entering heaven - movement in Eng and colonialAmerican Protestant churches taht flourished from 16 to mid th 17 century - began as an effort to purify the Church of Eng of was still there after accession of Elizabeth I - Puritans held the Calvinist theology – predestination – committing themselves to a view of human sinfulness and divine predestination - Puritans and Eng Presbysterians agreed in Westminster Confession of Faith - once Puritanism wanted in Eng, it already spread to the new world, carried by Puritan immigrants to New England - the denominations influenced by Puritanism emphasized personal morality Muslim  dhikr: “remembering” God's name; chanted in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while devotes dance in a circle - the most characteristic Sufi practice – dhikr = the remembrance of God - held before the dawn or evening prayers - consists of repetition of the name God,Allah or the shahadah, there is no god except God, - accompanied by special bodily movements and sometimes has breathing techniques - often the performance of the dhikr is what distinguishes the diff Sufi orders from one another – in some it is an emotional ritual (similar to charismatic practices in Pentecostal churches) yet in the Naqshbandi order , the dhikr is silent and inward prayer of the heard  ummah: the Muslim community - Muhammad laid the foundations of the community (ummah) that was based on Islamic principles - he established Islam inArabia and sent expeditions to Syria - in 80 years the Muslims administered the largest empire from France through NorthAfrica and the Middle East into India and CentralAsia - since Islam has no priesthood – every person is responsible for their own morality and for morality of the entire Muslim ummah - aims to make an ummah (community – society united by faith)  hajj: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca - one of the five pillars of Island, which except for the first one, are the pillars of rites of worship, both personal and communal - these Pillars are the foundation that Islam rests as a religious sytem of faith and social responsibility, worship and piety - each pillar has both an outer or public obligation dimension and an inner or private voluntary dimension - this is the fifth pillar and instituted byAbraham at God's command after he and his son Ishmael were ordered to build the Ka'ba - this is like an re-enactment of experiences ofAbraham - ex before pilgrims reached Mecca, they exchanged their clothes for two pieces of white linen = enter state of consecration - once in Mecca, the pilgrims begin with the lesser hajj (umrah) - hajj pilgrimage begins on the 8 of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12 month of Islamic calender - as sun passes the noon – all pilgrims gather for central rite of the hajj pilgrimage – standing (wuquf) on the Mount of Mercy inArafat - the wuquf recalls three sacred occasions once being whenAbraham and Ishmael performed the ritethuring first hajj pilgrimage - the 10 of Dhu al-Hijjah is the final day of the hajj season and first of the festival of sacrifice (day spent in Medina) - hajj ends with final circumanbulation of the Ka'ba and the completion of the rites of the lesser hajj - people return from hajj free from all sins - hajj = form of resurrection/rebirth and completion marks new stage in life  mi'raj: The Prophet's miraculous journey to heaven - second part of the Night Journey of Prophet Muhammad – the first was the trip to Jerusalem from Mecca - this is hwere God spoke to him (but did not see God) – all he saw was light - this is where God commanded Muhammad to make the five daily prayers - when he was going there he met prophets before him - he talked to Moses the most  qiblah: Araibic word for the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays - direction of the sacred shrine of the Ka'bah in Mecca; toward which Muslims turn 5 times every day when performing salat (daily ritual prayer) - Islam begun to distinguish itself from Judaism so in two years of Prophet's arrival to Medina, the fast of Ramada took precedence over the past of Yom Kippur and qiblah (direction of prayer) was changed from Jerusalem to the Ka'ba in Mecca  isnad: the pedigree or chain of transmission of a hadith, with which the individual unit begins - when Sufi chains of initiation were established – similar to chains of isnad in hadith transmission - list of authorities who have tramitted accounts of teachings or actions of Muhammad - each of these is known as the adth which includes an isnd that gives teh chain of authorities  ijma': the consensus of religio-legal scholars, one of the two secondary principles used in jurisprudence; some legal schools give it more weight than others - one of the four sources that schools used in the islamic purisprudence was based on – the two of these = Qur'an and sunnah then other two are ijtihad and ijma (general consensus of the community - the schools differened on emphasis or acceptance of these sources - principle of consensus (ijma') is meant to ensure the continued authenticity and truth of the 3 other sources – refers to the community's acceptance and support of applied shari'ah - this source has encouraged an active exchange of ideas of scholars - it is the final arbiter of truth and error  shari'ah: the specific regulations of Islamic law (jurisprudence or theoretical discussion of the law is fiqh) - a messenger delivers a universally binding sacred law (shari'ah) – like the Torah given to Moses on Mount Sinai - Islam is a way of life that is to be realized by living within the framework of divine law (shari'ah); way of life based on moral imperatives - like the Qur'an the shari'ah is concerned with relationships among individuals in society and between individuals and God - Muslims believe the shari'ah to be God's plan for the ordering of human society - ijma's refers to the community's acceptance and support of applied shari'ah - Mohamed el-Nimeriri made shari'ah the law in Sudan = conflict between Muslim north and Christian south  zakat: the prescribed welfare tax; 2.5 per cent of each Muslim's accumulated wealth, collected by central treasures in earlier times but now donated to charities independently of state governments - sadaqah –alms given voluntarily; in addition to the required zakat - one of the five pillars of islam – the third one – to pay zakat alms - this Pillar reflects the close relationship between worship of God and service to the poor and needly - offering alms = purify the donor, purging greed and attachment to material possessions -the zakat obligation has become voluntary - in relationship, Muslims also expected to practice voluntary almsgiving (sadaqah) – a loan given to God (repaid on Day of Resurrection) – recipient is anyone in need  hijrah: the prophet's migration from Mecca to establish a community in Medina in 622 CE – abbreviationAH stands for “year of hijrah” (the starting point of the Islamic dating system) - the migration (hijrah) to Yathrib which after was known as the city of the Prophet or Medina – this marked the beginning of community life under Islam Chapter 3 pp. 68-98; 98-107 ARitual Initiation  obligations reaffirmed every Sat in rituals that mark the coming of age of 13 year olds  Bar Mitzvah: 'son of the commandments' – title give to 13 year old boy – initiated into adult ritual responsibilities – Bat Mitzvah for girls too – symbolizes the arrival of age of ritual and moral responsibility  Sabbath 7 day of the week – day of rest  synagogue: local place of assembly for congregational worship – central to the tradition after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple  teenager reads two sections from Hebrew Bible: one from Pentateuch and one from second section = Prophets  Pentateuch: first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible – ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded to modern scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary activity  minyan: the quorum of 10 required for a prayer service in the synagogue  Torah: scripture which the Bat or Bar Mitzvah reads in public for first time – word means “ teaching/instruction” - Law of Moses but may also refer to the entire scripture including commentaries and entire spiritual thrust of Jewish religion – repository of religious truth – Jews expected to study as well as observe it throughout their lives  event of the coming of age ceremony may differ from one congregation to another Defining Judaism  Judaism Christianity and Islam = trace spiritual lineage toAbraham  Judaism is the smallest of three traditions but influence is the greatest  it is here where monotheism belief in one God originated  ethnic religion  some say yes to ethnic identity and no to religion  half of Jews live in Israel then US and Canada  Holocaust: when million of Jews were put to death by Nazis  half of all Jews are unaffiliated with any synagogue  US and Canada: the Jews there are : Reform, Conservation and Orthodox – difference in ritual practice  Jews believe that God expects all human beings to follow the same fundamental moral code – revealed bu the covenant given to Noah and bound by the covenant given to Moses at Mount Sinai  Jews = God's special people because they were saved from slavery once – have special responsibility to serve as God's helpers Origins The Biblical Period  history of people as they understand and follow a God who chose them to serve as his instrument  some history is the foundation of Hebrew religious literature – scared scripture for Christians and Muslims too  traditional wing of Judaism believe every word in text to be literally true Creation in Genesis - first 11 chapters = history of universe - ch.1 – god creates heaven and earth – before creation everything was chaotic ... God divided the light from darkness and so on and diff things on the first six days = ordered view of creation - Jews Sabbath = sundown on Friday night and end at sundown on Saturday - ch 2 – God causes mist to rise from the ground – creates Adam and Eve The Primal Couple - Genesis 2 ends with creation ofAdam(“man”) and Eve (“living”) - Genesis 3 – whereAdam and Eve son by eating the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil – Adam = unwary and trusting and speaks in simple sentences; Eve is curious and intelligent speaking in complex sentences – they lacked moral sense or ability to make moral distinctions – Eve eats apple andAdam follows - Eden story = conditions of human life -pain and evil = consequence sof human disobedience and lack of moral discernment - these stories are “etiological” - offer to explain the causes or reasons behind present circumstances The Israelite Narratives - first 11 chapters of Genesis = provide bg that explains why God had to choose specific people and establish a covenant with them - God floods earth allowing only Noah and creatures in ark to survive - Genesis 12 – sign of hope that humanity can be redeemed – when God choosesAbraham to serve as an example of righteous life - throughout the bible – hold that there is only one God and that the forces of nature are under his control - Yahweh “ he who causes to be” - traditional Judaism – forbade any tampering with the Hebrew scripture text – would have to say “adonay” instead of YHWH also called him Jehovah The Exodus - exodus: migration of Hebrew from Egypt under the leadership of Moses understood in later Hebrew though as marking the birth of the Israelite nation - when the story began, Hebrews are in Egypt working in Nile Delta - God tells Moses to release his people - God sends plagues on Egyptians - passover: major spring festival of agricultural rebirth and renewal given a historical dimension by association with the hasty departure of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses' leadership - Moses meets God at Mount Sinai and receives the 10 commandments = core of Israel law - Hebrew worship = in tent called Tabernacle – central cult object kept in a chest called theArk of the Covenant - two winged beasts = cherubim are on the top of this chest The Israelite Kings - starts in land of Canaan beginning with Joshua - book of Joshua recounts some victories over the Canaanites - then the book of Judges suggests that it was not easy to displace the Canaanites - greatest threat Israelites god was from Philistines - God chooses Saul then David then Davids successors to be kings because the Israelites need relief from Philistine menace - David, the youngest son of Jesse – God strengthens his hands so he could defeat the Philistines champion, Goliath – then he captures Jerusalem from Jebusites ; making it the city of David – David's successor is Solomon – makes lavish Temple to Yahweh on the hill called Zion - Zion: rock outcrop ridge on the uphill ride of Jerusalem - southern kingdom of Judah is known as the Sounds of David The Five Books of Moses - Jacob: family connection originated among the the 10 Hebrew tribes in northern kingdom – alternative name Israel became the name of the people -Abraham: lived in south of Jerusalem – served to bond the remaining two Hebrew tribes in Judah - David: founder of Judean dynasty – idealized for his military shrewdness – hymn collection of Jerusalem Temple , the contents of the book of Psalms came to be attributed to him - Solomon: portrayed as the paragon of wisdom and the biblical collection of Proverbs is attributed to him - Leviticus and Numbers: priestly law code in Leviticus - In Orthodox community – it was at Sinai that the entire corpus of the 5 books were given from God directly to Moses Modern Theories of the Composition of the Bible - Jean Astruc – first to say that the Pentateuch, the first books of Moses, may be a composite creation – also called atten to diffs in the names used to refer to God - Documentary Hypothesis: (Wellhausen's theory) has veen criticized by traditional Jews, Christians and Muslims who reject its humanizing assumptions - those who use the name Yahweh are called Yahwist- material of this source is identified by the letter J – said to work in southern kingdown of Judea – wrote before the separation - second source is called E (Elohist) for the use of the term Elohism – wrote in northern kingdom after separation – refers to Sinai as Horeb and people displaced by the Israelites as Amorites rather than Canaanites - God is a more awesome and remote entity for E than for J - these two were combined to = JE : The Lord God - Deuteronomy (D source) is central source for rewards and punishments theology of nation morality The Prophets - legal experts in Hebrew Bible = prophets - how prophets received messages is unknown - writing of prophets refer to the concept of covenant - prophetAmos delivered the words “You only have I known of all the families on earth. Therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities” The Babylonian Exile - in 586 BCE the Judean Kingdom fell - exile: marks the transition of the Hebrew tradition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people - Judeans = Jews - the heritage was not a subject or minority population - now congregational life -Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the vernacular language – but Hebrew was still the language of ritual - visions of a deliverer king (messianism) - cosmic battle followed by judgment at the end of the age (apocalyptism) - temple symbolized their covenant - Cyrus – restorer of the ancient regimes destroyed by the Babylonians and the champion of all the old gods - Emperor of Persia – decided to allow the return to Jerusalem though he was not a devotee of Yahweh – later called the “messiah” The Second Commonwealth - not all the jews wanted to return to Judah - descendants of David were called “nasi” meaning prince - second temple was completed in 515 BCE – after that all references to Zerubabel (another descendant of David's line) and kingship cease - Ezra and Nehemiah – established a stable government in Judea – government then was based on covenantal blueprint outlined in first five books of Moses - Nehemiah attempts to turn Sukkoth (harvest festival – booths or tabernacles) into a covenant renewal ceremony - former tribal territory of Judah was known as a yehudi , a Judean - endogamy (marriage only within a particular group) – most common marriage system - one reason Hebrews prohibited intermarriage = Canaanite’s practice of child sacrifice - worshippers of Yahweh = expected to marry withinAbraham's fam – opposite of Canaanite child sacrifice - during this period – edited first five books of the Bible by the priestly aristocracy – put tgthr in a single work consisting of five scrolls = Torah - Torah originally signifying a priestly ordinance and reflecting the editorial contributions of the priests – it became the foundation document of the nation in the period - Hebrew constitution = creation myth, national epic, and a narrative history Hellenistic Judaism  331 BCEAlexander the Great = Persian Empire  diaspora = dispersal – resulted that Judaism had to evolve new ways of understanding and explaining itself  Jewish community of Alexandria in Egypt adopted Greek names and styles – Hellenistic (I speak Greek...)  Bible translated in Greek – the edition is called Septuagint  editors of the Septuagint took the three divisions of Hebrew scripture – Law Prophets and Writings and rearranged them in 4 genres – law, history, poetry, and prophecy  Flavius Josephus,Apion – educator who wanted to keep Jews out of great schools ofAlexandria The Maccabean Revolt - over a century, Judea was under the control of Ptolemies (Greek dynasty) - in 198 BCE territory was passed to Seleucids, rulers of Syria - 168 BCE - transformed Temples into a cult place of Zeus - 166 BCE – general revolt broke out – led by a group of resistance fighters = Maccabees – they prevailed - main proponents of Hellenization were the priests - Maccabees recaptured Jerusalem from Seleucids and expanded the Jewish state - 164 BCE – rededication of the Temple – brought community together = Hanukkah - 165 – 63 BCE – Romans raptured Jerusalem and brought Judea under Romans Dynamics of Hellenism - new phase of Hellenization – Judaism began to adopt Hellenistic ideas and used them for Judean purposes First-Century Sects - power was balanced between two major groups : Sadducees and Pharisees – they ran Sanhedrin – they faced challenged from two smaller more radical sects, the Essenes and Zealots Sadducees  represented the upper stratum of Judean society – the aristocracy that embraced Hellenization  in charge of Temple's operations  insisted on a narrow literal interpretation of the law Pharisees  represented middle classes – some landowners, skilled workers and others were professional scribes for aristocratic Sadducees  disposed to interpret the scriptural text broadly  they were punctilious about rules of purity and tithing  the group “havuroth” (brotherhoods) = more strict about matters as such – considered themselves to be proper custodians of the law  Christians were critical of Pharisees – said they are hypocrites more interested in outward forms of ritual than inner substance of righteousness  but Pharisees thought that paying attention to external forms = way of making the sacred law part of everyday Essenes  authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls (collection of manuscripts from Maccabean)  group of observant priests – leader was the Teacher of Righteousness  they prepare for apocalypse (final battle between forces of darkness and light at the end of time)  produced the pesher (genre of commentary)  thought of themselves as the new children of Israel waiting to take the promised land back from the Hellenized Jews and gentiles Zealots  rejected Roman authority  Josephus describes them as bandits – specifically for Zealots = Fourth Philosophy who came together to liberate Judea from Roman control  Masada = natural high mesa near the Dead Sea – Zealots captured this from Herod the Great  from these ashes from disasters = rabbinic movement emerged to carry on the traditions of Pharisaism Samaritans  descendants of the northern Israelites – ancestors began marrying outside of Hebrew faith around end of 18 century BCE  accepted only the first give books of Moses – their version was diff from the Hebrew Pentateuch where it contained several references to a messianic figure expected to be a prophet like Moses Christians  began as a sect within Judaism  only Jewish sect of its day whose origins are well known  their message: all are qual before God  posed problems for Romans and their upper level Jewish administrators  was interested in reaching out to the distressed or sinful  Essenism was limited to a priestly elite whose members were busy with cultic purity rules that allowed them to go to holy places Jewish Thought in the Hellenistic Period Attitudes in the Diaspora  Philo: was anAlexandrian Jew philosopher – wrote on views on Diaspora  his works indicated that Torah remained fundamental The Concept of God  Greeks saw change = imperfection – the ultimate good could not be a creator because the idea of creation implied change – therefore creation had to be the work of a semi-divine intermediary power = demiurge  logos: a power to carry out Yahweh's work on earth – a kind of instrumental divine intelligence – intelligence thought to mediate between God and humanity and carry out God's intentions on earth  Judaism emphasized the responsibilities within the covenant – Jews were to transmit God's law to all humanity – as Christianity emphasized the fulfillment of the covenant's promises without the obligation to obey the ordinances of Jewish law Resurrection  eschatology: doctrine concerning the end of the age  apocalyptic: a genre of Jewish literature that emerge in the later prophetic books and flourished in the Hellenistic era – eschatogical in nature – subject of these texts = fate of Israel as a whole or a particularly faithful subgroup – final battle between forces of darkness and light expected at the end of time  original answer to the question of where personality goes after death = Sheol – underground place like Greek Hades where individual resides in greatly attenuated form – place of weakness and estrangement from God  what mattered was not to continue as a spirit but to live on in one's descendants  the book Ecclesiastes = clear about the finality of death  Job, like Ecclesiastes, argue explicitly against any belief in immorality  Judaism's evidence of a doctrine of resurrection is in the book of Daniel – he said righteous martyrs who died in order to remain true of God's Torah will be restored to everlasting life – if not they are in everlasting punishment The Messiah  messiah - “anointed one” - anointing = pouring oil over the head signifying divine sanction  in Hellenistic times, it came to mean an ideal future king, priest or prophet who would lead Israel to victory or referred to a current king  the expected king is referred to either as the son of David or the branch, a new shoot of the Davidic family tree  in Persian period the idea of a future king began to take a new significance  the messiah is the one who is expected finally to bring justice to the world Crystallization The Rabbinic Movement  fall of Jerusalem to the Romans = turing point in Judaism history – Temple was destroyed and was not rebuilt – Temple worship vanished from Jewish life and Sadducees disappeared  rabbis: chief custodians of the Jewish heritage – teachers and legal specialists – expert on the interpretation of Torah - no longer priests  Pharisaic-rabbinic movement worked out a modus vivendi with the Romances – Jewish community in any location would be subject to the law of the host community  Palestinian Jewish community government was re-established  rabbinic J
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