Study Guides (238,082)
Canada (114,909)
Religion (203)
RLGA02H3 (122)

RLGA02 WINTER '14 FINAL (terms/essay questions--highly detailed)

18 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Simon Appolloni

RLGA02 FINALSTUDY GUIDE CHRISTIAN TERMS Christology  Christology is concerned with the nature of Christ and is rooted in the controversial issues of the early centuries.  It focuses on Christ’s relationship to Jewish scripture, the divine vs. human nature of Jesus and the Trinitarian understanding of God.  Despite controversies, however, most Christians remained members of the “Catholic” (universal) Church. Gradually though, the divisions became more serious, and they involved growing numbers of Christians.  Nestorian churches(Christ two separate persons, one divine and one human )  Monophysite churches (Christ one person, with only a divine nature )  Greek and Roman churches (Christ one person, with both a divine and a human nature)  Final break 1054: mainly political and cultural  Filioque (from the son): did Holy Spirit proceed from God (Greek) or God and son (Latin) Eschatology  Eschatology—doctrine concerning the end of the age, and is translated from Greek for “study of the end”.  Apocalyptical literature is generally eschatological in nature and visionary in presentation. Whereas prophets claim to report Yahweh’s words, the apocalyptists generally claimed to report their own visions “I saw, and behold…”.  The book of Revelation is at the core of Christian eschatology and is concerned with death, an intermediate state, Heaven, hell, the return of Jesus, and the resurrection of the dead. Several evangelical denominations include a rapture, a great tribulation, the Millennium, end of the world, the last judgment, a new heaven and a new earth (the World to Come), and the ultimate consummation of all of God's purposes. Eschatological passages are found in many places, esp. Isaiah, Daniel, Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation, but Revelation often occupies a central place in Christian eschatology. The Second Coming of Christ is the central event in Christian eschatology. Most Christians believe that death and suffering will continue to exist until Christ's return. There are, however, various views concerning the order and significance of other eschatological events.  Islamic eschatology is documented in the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, regarding the Signs of the Day of Judgment. Vatican II  Roman Catholicism after 1500: the Roman Church recognized the need to correct the abuses of ecclesiastical power that Martin Luther had condemned.  The Council of Trent acted to enforce discipline and end the abuses, though it reaffirmed the authority of institutional tradition alongside scripture and upheld the idea of a priesthood of celibate intermediaries.  Founded shortly before the Council of Trent, in 1540, the Society of Jesus, or Jesuit order, exemplified three of the principle areas of renewal in the Catholic Church: spiritual discipline, education, and missionary expansion.  Changers ushered in new era for Catholicism; for example: Latin was replaced as the language of the mass by the vernacular, the pope now had a more collegial as opposed to monarchial role in council, the officiating priest now turned to face the congregation, the dress of priests and nuns was modernized (and secularized in many cases) and efforts were made to improve relations with people of other religions.  Nearly 50 years later, the council’s agenda has still not been completed. Priesthood today is under serious threat (declining number of recruits, celibacy requirement may play a role). Many Catholics cease to follow teachings they believe are out of date (e.g. contraceptive methods). Christian Monasticism  Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship (Greek monos=”one” or “alone”).  It began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church. Influenced by the Essene population, Jesus’s 40 days in the desert and possibly Eastern religions. Early ascetics wanted to prepare for the end of the world and the return of Christ, which they expected imminently, and the practice of a strict discipline was widely believed to deepen spiritual significance. In 2 and 3 centuries (when persecution was imminent), life in the desert was the alternative to martyrdom. In more secure periods, asceticism was an effective way to make public statement repudiating the laxity and complacency of the wider community, particularly after the fourth century, when, the imperial patronage, Christianity became fashionable ad even began to acquire some opulent trappings.  Origins of Christian monasticism are traced toAntony, who was termed a hermit. Early monastic communities were informal, and later became formalized as a corporate and permanent discipline and an integral part of Christianity (despite its initial origins being temporary and individual). Trinity  The concept of God as having three “persons” or divine manifestations—Father, Son and Holy Spirit.  Theological issues raise the question of how a transcendent God enters the human condition to perform saving acts. Jesus’s status as a manifestation of God was eventually spelled out in the doctrine of the Trinity, during the third century.  Strongly linked to Christology—the study of the nature of Christ rooted in the controversial issues of the early centuries. It focuses on Christ’s relationship to Jewish scripture, the divine vs. human nature of Jesus and the Trinitarian understanding of God.  Despite controversies, however, most Christians remained members of the “Catholic” (universal) Church. Gradually though, the divisions became more serious, and they involved growing numbers of Christians.  Nestorian churches(Christ two separate persons, one divine and one human )  Monophysite churches (Christ one person, with only a divine nature )  Greek and Roman churches (Christ one person, with both a divine and a human nature)  Final break 1054: mainly political and cultural  Filioque (from the son): did Holy Spirit proceed from God (Greek) or God and son (Latin)  Perhaps as early as 150, the Apostle’s Creed was coming into use. It is frequently recited by congregations in services of worship. Another well-known creed was the Nicene Creed, named for the Council of Nicaea in 325. It covers much of the same details as the Apostle’s Creed in more detail and is often a regular part of the services in the Catholic tradition. Nicene Creed more Trinitarian and inclined to mention the Spirit, along with God the father and Christ the son as part of a triadic list.  Understanding of Trinity is significant because it raised much debate and division of the Churches. It also emphasizes the process by which human sin is conquered or atoned for—a central doctrinal question that still exists today. Synoptic Gospels  The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct.  This strong parallelism among the three gospels in content, arrangement, and specific language is widely attributed to literary interdependence. The question of the precise nature of their literary relationship — the "synoptic problem" — has been a topic of lively debate for centuries.  The longstanding majority view favors that both Matthew and Luke have made direct use of the Gospel of Mark as a source, and further holds that Matthew and Luke also drew from an additional hypothetical document, called “Q”.  The synoptic gospels overall, have challenged—and continue to challenge—previous views of when the gospels where written as well as the sources of the narratives. For example, traditional views hold that Matthew was written first, however, scholars agree that Mark was written first.  In addition, although the synoptic gospels overlap to a considerable extent, they present numerous differences. For example, Matthew describes the Sermon on the Mount as being on a mountain in northern Palestine, whereas Luke presents the same Sermon material—though in his gospel, it is delivered on a plain. These discrepancies as well as the “Q” source serve as a basis for further research in the field. Orthodoxy  “Right teaching”.  In a time when doctrine is still developing, orthodoxy—“right teaching:--does not exist: it can be identified only in retrospect, once we know which view prevailed. Orthodoxy is the consensus which can be affirmed—with the wisdom of hindsight—as having been intended all along. ”  Orthodox Christianity is a collective term for the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy. These two branches of Christianity use the term "orthdoxy" to express their belief to have an unbroken connection to the faith, doctrine and practices of the ancient Christian church. Their adherents call themselves simply "Orthodox Christians".  The Orthodox stream of Christianity developed from the church’s spread across the Byzantine, empire in the first few centuries after Jesus. It was greatly influenced Greek culture and over the centuries relations between the two power bases – Constantinople and Rome – grew more tense over political and theological differences. In 1054, the Great Schism – resulting from disagreements over the Roman Pope’s claim to supremacy and the doctrine of the Holy Spirit – led to the split between the Eastern Church (centred in Constantinople, now Istanbul) and the Western Church (centred in Rome).  The Eastern Church spread northwards into Russia and Slavic countries. The church became a focal point for national as well as spiritual identity for many people. 200 million Eastern Orthodox worldwide. Paul  Paul was a principal influence on the direction of the early Church. He was an educated Pharisee from the diaspora Jewish community of Tarsus who had gone to Jerusalem for religio-legal study.  Paul did not know Jesus personally. However, as Luke tells it, Paul was travelling to Damascus for the purpose of persecuting Christians and experienced a vision of the post-resurrection Jesus that turned his life around. For the next quarter century he travelled around the eastern Mediterranean, initially preaching to the diaspora Jewish communities, but actually reaching out to the gentiles as well, teaching that all were heirs in Christ to the promises of God.  His letters (ranging from personal greetings through liturgical blessings to essays on theology), written before the gospels themselves were composed, constitute the earliest Christian literature, and their influence on Christian theology can hardly be overestimated.  In his letters, Paul refers to himself as the apostle to the gentiles. He rejects the idea that in order to follow Jesus one must first become a Jew and follow the various regulation of the Pharisaism. For Paul, it is not through observance of ritual laws or even correct moral conduct that salvation is attained, but rather through faith in Jesus and the divine grace, transmitted through Christ, frees people to bondage to the law of Moses.  At the same time, Paul takes up some broader issues with his gentile audience. To the educated Greco-Roman world, goodness amounted to virtue, that is, the cultivation of right moral conduct. But action that is no more effective than action that is ritually correct by Pharisaic standards. Basically, human beings are inherently self-willed and sinful (Church later called original sin). It was in order to liberate humans from their sinful nature that God sent Jesus to die a self-sacrificing death.  Clashed with Peter and James on issues like food and circumcision.  Centuries later, the idea that salvation—redemption from sin—depends solely on trusting faith would be central to the Protestant Reformation.  Another theme in Paul brings up is the contrast between life in the “spirit”—centred on lasting values like faith, hope and love—vs life in the “flesh” (the pursuit of what passes away—including worldly ambition or pleasure). This later developed into a major issue for Christianity as it suggested that the body must be controlled or repressed.  Thanks to Paul’s voyages, Christian communities were established in many of the port cities of the Roman Empire. Paul ultimately became a martyr (etymologically, a “witness”) himself, executed in Rome as part of the emperor Nero’s persecution of Christians. Creeds  Creeds (latin for “belief”) are the statement of the content of Christian faith composed by the Church very early in its history  Especially before Constantine put an end to the policy of persecution, these statements served as tests of the seriousness and commitment of individuals joining the movement. They also serve as a lasting influence on Christian understanding of both themselves and others.  Perhaps as early as 150, the Apostle’s Creed was coming into use. It is frequently recited by congregations in services of worship. Another well-known creed was the Nicene Creed, named for the Council of Nicaea in 325. It covers much of the same details as the Apostle’s Creed in more detail and is often a regular part of the services in the Catholic tradition. Nicene Creed more Trinitarian and inclined to mention the Spirit, along with God the father and Christ the son as part of a triadic list.  The differences between the two creeds reflect the emergence of the explicit doctrine of the Trinity. At stake was the relationship among the three divine ‘persons’or manifestations: God as heavenly father and creator, Jesus as son and redeemer, and the Holy Spirit as a continuing source of inspiration, guidance, and comfort. Hildegard of Bingen  Hildegard of Bingen was a Benedictine abbess who had a creative life in writing and music but was also involved in politics and diplomacy. Clergy and feudal nobility sought the counsel of “the Sybil of the Rhine,” as she was called.  When she became absess in 1141, she had a vision of tongues of flame from the heavens settling on her, and over the next ten years she wrote a book visions called Scivias (‘Know the ways [of God]’).  Mysticism is a tradition that emphasizes the certainty of profound personal experience and typically the mystic is certain of God through intense awareness as opposed to logical proof.  Overall, she is symbolic of how medieval mysticism afforded much scope for women. Although women were forbidden to participate fully in clerical activities, and were limited to supporting roles even in female religious orders, there was no limit to the experiential depth and profundity they could attain in their devotion. Constantine  Emperor Constantine gradually abandoned the persecution policy and issued an edict that gave Christians liberty to practice their religion, and eventually gave them state support and patronage.  The Emperor’s conversion to Christianity was sparked by a vision he experienced on the eve of a decisive battle in 312, in which a cross appeared in the heavens, accompanied by the words ‘conquer in this sign’. The following day, his troops won the battle and he gained control of the western half of the empire.  Modern historians have speculated about Constantine’s motives however since issues such as Christian symbols appeared alongside pagan symbols on coinage for a long time, and Sunday did not become a public holiday for a long time.  Constantine realized that the Church as an institution had the potential to serve as a much needed stabilizing force and was dispersed throughout the empire.  Developed system of region government (local dioceses operated under supervision of bishops). In response to doctrinal challenges, it seemed to be developing a coherent set of teachings and remarkable discipline, both institutional and personal.  Although it was only with Theodosius that the empire became officially Christian, Constantine initiated the way in which Christianity would flourish in the Roman Empire. Logos  ‘Word’; in the sense of eternal divine intelligence and purpose.  In Christology, the concept that the Christ is the Logos has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus Christ.  The concept derives from the opening of the Gospel of John, which is often simply translated into English as: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."  The Alexandrians of Egypt understood Christ in terms reminiscent of the prologue to John: the eternal logos or Word was incarnated in the human person of Jesus, and therefore experienced all the changes that he did: birth, the gaining of wisdom, suffering and death.  By contrast, theAntiochenes, argued that the logos was an entity distinct from the human Jesus, over whom it exercised a controlling influence.  These differences came to a head when the theologians tried to define the status of Mary, the mother of Jesus. For the Alexandrians, Mary was the theotokos (‘bearer of God’). But for theAntiochenes, she was the christokos (‘bearer of Christ’): the mother of the man Jesus but not of the eternal son of God.  At stake was not only doctrine; the allegiance of popular devotion was at stake if one sided withAntioch against the Alexandrian theotokos concept. Predestination  Leave out. Ecumenism  In 1948, the Word Council of Churches (WCC) was formed with representation from most major Protestant and Orthodox bodies.  Ecumenism (from the Greek meaning ‘inhabited world’) offered a climate of mutual acceptance and common purpose, an emphasis on unity within diversity.  Anumber of denominational mergers also took place in the 20th century, such as the 1925 formation of the United Church of Canada by the Methodists, Congregationalists, and a majority of the Presbyterians. th  Rome’s 20 century move into Ecumenism was initiated Roman Catholic pope John XXIII. Apermanent Secretariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity was established.  Spirit of reunion was strong, by the end of the 1960’s, Protestant and Catholic institutions for the study of theology and the training of clergy were entering into collaborative arrangements of all sorts, while their students were attending the same lectures and reading the same books. Agulf that separated Western Christendom for four centuries was being bridged. Council of Trent  The Roman Church recognized the need to correct the abuses of ecclesiastical power that Luther had condemned.  The Council of Trent allowed the Church to embark on a process of renewal, emphasizing discipline, accountability, and faithfulness to ecclesiastical and historical tradition that would come to be known as either the ‘Catholic Reformation’or the ‘Counter Reformation’(because it was designed to counter the rise of Protestantism).  Council of Trent opened in Trent, Italy. Although participation was limited to Catholic bishops, Protestants were also in attendance. For some time, hope of reconciliation, but agreement could not be achieved.  The decrees formulated at Trent—the adjective for them is “Tridentine”—would stand as the RCC’s self-definition for four centuries. They covered the entire range of issues, practical and theoretical, that had come to a boil in Protestantism.  Historians differ in their assessments of the Catholic response to the Reformation. Protestant see the post-Tridentine era as one of repression, pointing out the ‘Index of Prohibited Books,’which was institutionalized at Trent, and the revival of the investigative tribunals of the Inquisition as examples. Catholic interpreters do not deny that there was an Index or an Inquisition, but they underline the need for discipline and fidelity to truth understood conservatively, as well as to a genuine desire for renewal.  The council acted to enforce discipline and end the abuses and excesses that had so weakened the Church’s credibility as an intuition. It stood its ground against some of the Protestants’theoretical positions, however. It reaffirmed the authority of the institutional traditional alongside scripture. It also upheld the idea of a priesthood with a distinct status and function as intermediaries, reaffirming the tradition of celibacy and creating seminaries for the training of new priests. In addition, Trent reiterated the Catholic understanding for the mass as a sacrifice. According to the doctrine of transubstantiation, the words ‘this is my body’and ‘this is my blood’are literally and mysteriously effective, transforming the wafer and wine of the mass to the body and blood of Christ.  For 4 centuries after Trent, the Tridentine text of the mass, in Latin, was throughout the Catholic world. Since Latin as no longer spoken by the congregation, however, the moment of transubstantiation was indicated by the ringing of a small bell. For the faithful that moment of one of mystery and miracle, but others have dismissed it as a show. St.Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)  Francis of Assisi grew up as the privileged son of wealthy cloth maker in Italy, but a serious illness in his twenties led him to rethink his life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he was so moved by the beggars outside St Peters Basilica that he exchanged clothes with one of them and spent the day begging for alms.  When he returned toAssisi, he dedicated his life to serving the poor. Gradually attracting a small group of like- minded companions, he established a rule of life emphasizing poverty, which received papal approval in1209.  Within a few years, Clara of Assissi had formed a Franciscan women’s order known as the Poor Clares.  An offshoot of the Franciscans called the Capuchins drew up their own rule in later and are still known today for their soup kitchens, which offer free meals in impoverished neighborhoods.  Francis experienced a vision of an angel from whom he received the ‘stigmata’: wounds in his own body replicating those suffered by Christ on the cross.  He was proclaimed a saint 2 years after his death; he quickly became a beloved figure and the subject of many legends, among them several that emphasized his love of the natural world. In one of the most famous tales, he preaches to a flock of birds, telling them how fortunate they are to be provided for by God. ISLAMIC TERMS Salat  One of the 5 pillars of Islam consisting of obligatory prayers (salat). These are distinguished from voluntary devotional acts, such as meditations and personal supplicatory prayers (which may be offered at any time), in that they must be performed five times in a day and night: at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and after dark. The salat prayers were the first Islamic rituals to be instituted.  The salat prayers must always be preceded by ritual washing. Wudu (“making pure or radiant”) or partial washing.  Whether a Muslim prays alone or behind an imam in congregation, he or she is always conscious of countless other men and women engaged in the same act of worship.  Each phrase of the call to prayer is repeated at least twice for emphasis.  The prayers consist of cycles or units called rak’ahs, with bowing, kneeling, and prostration. The dawn prayers consist of two cyles, the noon and mid-afternoon prayers of four each, the sunset prayer of three, and the night prayers of four cycles.  Apart from some moments of contemplation and personal supplication at the end of the salat, these prayers are fixed formulas consisting largely of passages from the Qur’an, especially the opening sura (al-Fatihah). The fatihah for Muslim, in in some ways similar to the Lord’s Prayer for Christians. It is repeated in every rak’ah—at least seventeen times in every 24-hour period.  Salat is the second of five pillars in which the foundations on which Islam rests as a religious system of faith and social responsibility, worship and piety. This act of worship is obligatory for all Muslims. Hadith  The account of the Prophet’s sayings is called the hadith (= tradition). Hadith is the most important component of sunnah (the acts of the Prophet reported in anecdotes about situations or events to which he reacted or in which he participated) because it is the most direct expression of the Prophet’s opinions or judgments regarding community conduct.  Accounts that report the prophets’sayings must go back to an eyewitness of the event. The hadith literature is often called “tradition” in English, in a quite specific sense. Islamic tradition (or Prophetic tradition) is the body of sayings traced back Muhammad through chains of oral transmission. Hadith is the most important component of sunnah because it is the most direct expression of the Prophet’s opinions or judgements regarding the community’s conduct.  The aim of the study of hadith is to ascertain the authenticity of a particular text by establishing the completeness of the chain of its transmission and the veracity of its transmitters.  As legal manuals, all six collections are organized topically, beginning with the laws governing the rituals of worship and the continuing with the laws regulating the social, political, and economic life of the community. Qu’ran  Was revealed to the prophet Muhammad over a period of 23 years.  The term Qur’an is derived from the root: q-r-’, meaning ‘to read’or ‘recite’.  Muslims believe that the Qur’an is an immutable heavenly book containing the eternal Word of God.  Since it was revealed specifically in theArabic language, any translation is considered to be an interpretation, not the Qur’an itself.  The Qur’an declares God to be the one and only creator, sustainer, judge, and sovereign Lord over all creation.  ‘Allah’is not the name of a particular deity, but theArabic word for God.  The Qur’an is primarily concerned with moral issues in actual situations.  When the Prophet died in 632, the only physical records of the Qur’an were fragments written on stones, bones, palm leaves, and animate parchment.  The process of producing an official text of the Qur’an was completed under the third caliph, or representative of the Prophet, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, within 20 years of the Prophet’s death.  Every legal or theological school, religious trend, or political movement in Muslim history has looked to the Qur’an for its primary support and justification, which has resulted in a wide range of interpretations. Ibn Rushd (Averroës)  Early Islamic philosophy had a distinctive character: Aristotelian in its logic, physics and metaphysics; Platonic in its political and social aspects; and Neoplatonic in its mysticism and theology.  Born in Spain, was the greatest commentator onAristotle. He came from a long line of jurists, and was himself a noted scholar of Islamic law. His legal training decisively influenced his philosophy.  In a critique of al-Ghazali, entitled The Incoherence of the Incoherence, Ibn Rushd methodically criticizes al Ghalazi for misunderstanding philosophy and Ibn Sina for misunderstandingAristotle. The first to construct a true Aristotelian philosophical system, Ibn Rushd essentially shared his Eastern predecessors’belief in the primacy of philosophy over religion. In his famous double-truth theory, however, he argued that both were valid ways of arriving at truth: the difference was that philosophy was the way of the intellectual elite, while religion was the way of the masses.  Ibn Rushd was just one of the many Islamic philosophers that had a lasting influence on medieval and Renaissance thought in Europe, particularly through its interpretation ofAristotelianism. Europeans came to know Ibn Rushd by his Latin name, Averroës. Sufism  Is a branch of Islam, defined by adherents as the inner, mystical, dimension of Islam  Early Muslim mystics were said to wear a garment of coarse wool over their bare skin in emulation of Jesus (who was a model for ascetic piety), and were thus called Sufis (from the Arabic word meaning ‘wool’).  Islamic asceticism was known to “shun” the world, and was only one element in the development of Sufism. For its own sake, however, was frowned on by many advocates of mystical piety.  Sufi fraternities developed. The earliest were established in the late 8th century, and by the 13th century a number of these groups were becoming institutionalized.  The most characteristic Sufi practice is a ritual called the dhikr (remembrance) of God (such as chanting poetry), which may be public or private. It implies a certain identification with God.  Another distinctly Sufi practice is the sama’(‘hearing’or ‘audition’), in which devotees simply listen to the often hypnotic chanting of mystical poetry, accompanied by various musical instruments  Some, such as the ‘whirling Dervishes (of the Mevlevi order) a dance characterized by a sophisticated twirling. Some elaborate breathing techniques  The Sufi traditions provided one of the few outlets for women to be recognized as leaders; leadership opportunities otherwise denied to them Jihad  Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims and isArabic for ‘struggle’—has two components: o Inner jihad is the struggle to make oneself more Islamic. o Outer jihad is the struggle to make one’s society more Islamic. Al-Andalus  Al-Andalus, also known as Muslim Spain, was a medieval Islamic state consisting of an extraordinary culture.  Muslims, Christians and Jews lived together in mutual tolerance for centuries before fanatical forces on all sides stifled one of the most creative experiments in interfaith living history.  Arab Spain was termed the cultural centre of Europe and attracted students from afar to study Islamic theology, philosophy and science in centres of higher learning. It was in these centres that the European Renaissance was conceived, and the great universities in which it was nurtured were inspired by theirArab-Hispanic counterparts.  In Islamic Spain, Jews enjoyed golden age of philosophy and science, mysticism and general prosperity. Jewish scholars, court physicians, and administrators occupied high state offices and served as political and cultural liaisons between Islamic Spain and the rest of Europe.  Arab learning penetrated deep into Western Europe and contributed directly to the rise of the West to world prominence. Ijtihad  An Islamic legal term that means “independent reasoning” or “the utmost effort an individual can put forth in an activity.” As one of the four sources of law, it is recognized as the decision-making process in Islamic law (sharia) through personal effort (jihad).  The three other sources of law in include the Qur’an, the sunnah and the ijma (general consensus of the community.  By using both the Qu'ran and Hadith as resources, the scholar is required to carefully rely on analogical reasoning to find a solution to a legal problem, which is considered to be a religious duty for those qualified to conduct it.  Emphasizes the importance of the “religious sciences”—which Muslims believe is a comprehensive cultural package including theology, philosophy, literature and science that developed with Islam.  Itjihad is also consistent with the belief that the essence of faith is right living and submission to the will of God. Ummah  Significant of how the Qu’ran and shar’iah are centrally concerned with relationships among individuals in society and between individuals and God.  Ummah=community or nation and it is commonly used to mean the collective community of Islamic peoples. In the Quran the ummah typically refers to a single group that shares common religious beliefs, specifically those that are the objects of a divine plan of salvation.  Islam has no priesthood. Every person is responsible both for the entire Muslim and his/her own morality.  The Qur’an places kindness and respect to partners next in importance to the worship of God. These are followed by caring for the poor and the needy through alms giving. Rasul  Islamic tradition maintains that God sent many prophets into the world, includingAbraham, Moses, David, and Jesus.  Aprophet (nabi) is one who conveys a message from God to a specific people at a specific time.  A messenger (rasul) is also a prophet sent by God to a specific community; but the message he delivers is a universally binding sacred law (shari’ah); Muhammad is understood as a Messenger of God. Hijrah  The "Hijra" is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina between June 21 and July 2 in 622 CE. Marked the beginning of community life under Islam and thus the Islamic history.  Migration provided a starting point for the dating system used throughout the Muslim world. Years are counted backwards or forwards from the hijrah and accompanied by the abbreviationAH, from the Latin for “year of the hijrah”.  In Medina, Muhammad established the first Islamic commonwealth: a truly theocratic state, headed bya prophet whose rule was believed to follow the dictates of a divine scripture. Tawakkul  Tawakkul in the Arabic language, is the word for the Islamic concept of reliance on God or "trusting in God's plan". It is seen as "perfect trust in God and reliance on Him alone."  In fact, the Qur'an speaks of the fact that success in only achieved when trust is in God and the believer is steadfast and obeys God's commands.  Quranic references: the active participle form of tawakkul is used in 38 passages in the Qur'an.  Since early times is Islam there has been debate as to the extent of tawakkul as a virtue in everyday life. This debate centered around questions such as the degree of reliance on God (views of extreme and total dependence on God to the point of pure fatalism were popular among rejectionist ascetics). Sunnis  Muhammad’s death precipitated a crisis of succession. o The majority of Muslims—the Sunni, meaning those who follow the sunnah (traditions) of the Prophet— believed that he had not designated a successor and it was up to the Muslim community to select a successor (caliph) to lead. o Aminority community, known as the Shi’a, meaning ‘party’, believed that Muhammad had appointed his son-in-law ‘Ali to succeed Muhammad as leader or imam.  Today, Sunni Islam maintains its status as the largest branch of Islam.  Although Sunnis and Shi'as agree on many theological and practical matters, the Sunni are typically seen as putting more emphasis on the power of God and his determination of human fate, and are often understood to be more inclusive in their definition of what it means to be a Muslim. The Sunni tradition has placed great emphasis on the role of religion in public and political life, with great weight placed on the Shariah (Islamic law) as the standard for a broad range of social issues—marriage, divorce, inheritance, commerce, and so on. They are considered the more “orthodox” equivalent to the faith. Ka’ba  The Ka'aba ("The Cube"), is a cuboid building at the centre of Islam's most sacred mosque, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred point within this most sacred mosque, making it the most sacred location in Islam. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba – i.e. when outside Mecca, to face toward Mecca – when performing salat (prayers).  As long as they are able to do so, one of the Five Pillars of Islam requires every Muslim to perform the Hajj pilgrimage at least once in his or her lifetime. Multiple parts of the Hajj require pilgrims to make Tawaf, the circumambulation seven times around the Kaaba in a counter-clockwise direction. During the Hajj, millions of pilgrims gather to circle the building on the same day.  The Hajj is associated with the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Sayyidna Ibrahim (Abraham). Shari’ah  For Muslims God is the ultimate lawgiver. The shari’ah is sacred law, ‘the law of God’(based on the Qur’an and Sunnah). It consists of the maxims, admonitions, and legal sanctions and prohibitions enshrined in the Qur’an and explained, elaborated, and realized in the Prophetic tradition.  The term shari’ah originally signified the way to the source of water. Metaphorically it came to mean the way to the good in this world and the next. It is ‘the straight way’that leads the faithful to paradise in the hereafter. Muslims believe the shari’ah to be God’s plan for ordering of human society.  Within the framework of the divine law, human actions range between those that are absolutely obligatory and will bring rewards on the Day of Judgement, and those that are absolutely foribidden and will bring harse punishment. Actions are classified in 5 categories:  In shari’ah law, action is classified in five categories. 1) Lawful 2) Commendable 3) Neutral 4) Reprehensible 5) Unlawful  These categories govern all human actions. The correctness of an action and the intention that lies behind it together determine its nature and its consequences for the person who performs it.  Jurisprudence, or fiqh, is the theoretical and systematic aspect of Islamic law and was developed in various legal schools. Quraysh Tribe  The Quraysh was a
More Less

Related notes for RLGA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.