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HUMAO1-Exam Review .doc

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Ted Petit

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HUMAO1 Exam Study NotesUniversity1 repository of knowledge Libraries textbooks professors heads2 A place where newknowledge gets made Research peer review publication conversation Knowledge Information processed through a thinking human mind Plato defined knowledge as justified true belief Knowledge is produced by humansEpistemology the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature source limits scope and validity of knowledge Studies in epistemology are especially interested in developing criteria for evaluating claims people make that they know something etymologythe study of word originsEmpirical came from the Greek word empirikos which means experienceEmpirikos can be divided into two Greek words en and peira which mean in and trial So the word literally means experience in trialKnowledge is made in two broadbased ways Empirical vs Speculative AnalyticCritical Empirical Science is divided into two branchesNatural Sciences such as biology chemistry and physicsSocial Sciences such as anthropology economics and sociologyIdeology sets of ideas which give some account of the social world usually a partial and selective one the relationship of these ideas or values to the ways in which power is distributedsocially the way that such values are usually posed as natural obvious and common sense rather than socially producedHegemony one nations rule or dominance over anotherRepresentation The social process of making meaning by making signs stand for something To represent means to stand in for something You represent your team your neighbourhood your university it means to faithfully carry the identity of an area or group to do it with honour and to make others aware RepresentationPowerSemiotics the study of signs A way to understand culture as if it were a language An intellectual tool widely used within humanities disciplinesTwo Key foundersCharles Sanders Peirce18391914 and Ferdinand de Saussure 18571913SignsA sign is a representation and vice versa Signs are ideological They encode naturalized norms that have a taken for grantedness quality Thants just the way things are Signs convey authority The meaning is dependent on its social historical and cultural context Saussure argued that signs only make sense as part of a formal generalized and abstract system The meaning of a sign is dependent on its social historical and cultural context The connection between signifier and signified is arbitrary they are not in a natural relationship Meaning depends on the context in which the sign is presented It matters for example it matters if an image is found in a museum gallery or in a magazine The meaning depends on the viewers who are doing the interpretation You need to consider the subject position of the individual doing the interpretation How do attributes such as race class gender sexuality religion educational level ability life stage and so on inflect the way the person interprets what is seen How do these characteristics affect the way YOU see the world
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