religions notes from discussion board.docx

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David Perley

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ISLAM UmmahThe Muslim communityConsists of all the people that believe in the ShahadahVarious different groups such as Sunni and Shiis are considered to be one ummahQuran refers to the Muslims as the best community because they invite people to do good and refrain from evilAny person who accepts the shahadah is counted as the ummahHajjAn annual pilgrimage to Makkah to visit the house of GodThe pilgrimage should be performed at least once by every sane individualEvery individual should try to perform Hajj but if they are unable to do so due to circumstances than it is okayHajj is a form of worship where the believers are forgiven for their past sins and exchanged for reward QiblahThe direction of prayer for all MuslimsThe direction of prayer points toward the Kaba holy house of GodMosques also point towards this direction of prayer and have a niche in the wall indicating the directionThe act of all Muslims facing the Qiblah symbolizes unityThe initial direction of the Qiblah was pointing towards Jerusalem then Prophet Muhammad received revelation of the new Qiblah and turned to the Kaba Bar MitzvahIn the Jewish tradition means Son of commandmentThe title is given to a thirteenyear old boyHe is required to take ownership of faith to pursue independence and responsibility for following Jewish ritualscommandment is the idea that the young boy has become responsible and has achieved a new position of maturityThere are three basic stages that takes place in the bar mitzvah 1 he is called to the stand to recite a small passage from the Torah orally 2 The derashah which is the second stage where the boy gives a public speech to the audience thanking his family for their unconditional love and care as well as his guests for attending his bar mitzvah ceremony 3 The last stage of the bar mitzvah is the festive meal known as the Seudah which is the festive party following the religious ceremonyOne material that is used during the bar mitzvah is tefillin which is a traditional Jewish hat that the young boy is required to wear In some branches of Judaism many people celebrate a Bat Mitzvah for girls JUDAISM Apocalypse the final battle between the forces of darkness and light can otherwise been seen as the ending of one stage of lifestyle with the prospect of starting a new stage The essense were believed to be a priestly group who followed the teachings of The Righteous Teacher and were a sect in the Hebrew society They anticipated the apocalypse and had left Jerusalem after the acceptance of an unwanted member into the circle to prepare for the battleWas also preached by Jesus during the rise of Christianity and urged people to admit to their sins as radical change was soon approachingAlso comparable to Eschatology the study of the end of time no battles looks at thoughts on afterlife and the judgement from God to an individual Berith the Hebrew term for the word covenant otherwise known as a contract The covenant was where the religious aspect was centered around it was the formal agreement between God and his people It was expected that in return for obeying his word God would grant his people safetyAn example is seen with Abraham and God where Abraham is to follow Gods will and in return he and his people would be granted the land of Canaanrefer to theme of obediencedisobediencerewardspunishment Documentary Hypothesis otherwise known as Wellhausens Theory after Julius Wellhausen From a scholars perspective the Pentateuch was written in many different styles and the settings and writings seemed to be from different time periods Wellhausen came up with the theory that there were 4 major sources from which the material making up the Pentateuch came from making it a composite creationEach source given represent a written interpretation of an oral traditionThe J source this source used the name Yaweh for god in its text and emphasizes the role of Abraham The E source used the term Elohist to refer to god and claimed that the sacred mountain was mount horeb not Sinai The D source from the word Deuteronomy otherwise known as the book of law this source governs peoples morality as its central idea revolves around rewards and punishment The P source the priestly source was thought to be the later contributions to the Pentateuch and hold the blueprints necessary to restore the sacred Temple Diaspora The Jews were scattered outside of plestine during the Babylonian Exilesimilar to the way Adam and Eve were exiled out of the Garden of Eden Eschatology can be seen as the study of the end because the Jewish bible didnt give any thoughts on what happened to an individual after death There were no thoughts on an afterlife existing because there was no real distinction between the body and the soul thus there was no reason for thoughts on the soul being able to exist after a person died What mattered more was living through ones descendants and carrying on the lineage It was believed that after death an individual would be in Sheol a place of isolation from God similar the Hades in Greek where weakness existed and it was not seen as heaven or hellIn Christianity Eschatology perceived the afterlife as being a place where one of resurrected for god to give judgement as to whether or not they should be sent to heaven or hell The Exile The transition from the ancient Hebrew religion to Judaism and Jews During this time period th6 century Hebrew leaders were sent into exile the cult of an ancient kingdom was now progressing into a religious heritage There were social and religious changes that followed The Jews were a minority population and had dispersed life was more urban which meanth that agricultural rituals now needed to be rethoughtrevised The bigger impact was on the temple worshipping was now more congregational and during this time the synagogue was created Exodus The Exodus was the story of how the Israelites left Egypt after being put through slavery It focuses on the connection between God and Moses In the story God request that Moses asks the pharaoh to release him and his people upon denial God then sends a plague on the people of Egypt but spares moses and his people Moses then leads the Israelites across the Yam Sufthe story of the Exodus can be seen as a metaphor now for all Jews as the transition from slavery to freedom everyone in the Jewish culture can identify with this story with the celebration of Passover Menorah The menorah is a seven branched candle that was seen in most jewish household it eventually became a symbol of the culture before the six pointed star the 9 branched candle stick is used in Hanukah Messiah The term messiah during the Hellenistic times referred to a king or prophet that would eventually lead Israel to victory in more realistic terms the messiah was usually referring to the Kingthe Jews were persuaded into believing that Christ was the messiah of their time other messiahs could be seen as moses for leading the people out of Egypt and Abraham for leading the people to CanaanBefore the Exile is was thought that God would raise up an ideal king as the saviour of the Jews
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