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RLGA02 - Final Exam definitions

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David Perley

Bar Mitzvah o -It means son of the Commandment and is refer to the initiation of a thirteen-year-old boy into adult ritual responsibilities in the synagogue service. o -It gives right to take part in leading religious services, to count in a minyan (the minimum number of people needed to perform certain parts of religious services), to form binding contracts, to testify before religious courts and to marry. o -The celebrant is called up to the Torah to recite a blessing over the weekly reading. o -Some branches of Judaism parallel it with a Bat Mitzvah for girls o -In modern times, the religious service is followed by a reception that is often as elaborate as a wedding reception, gifts are commonly given o -In Orthodox and Chasidic practice, women are not permitted to participate in religious services in these ways, so a bat mitzvah, if celebrated at all, is usually little more than a party. In other movements of Judaism, the girls do exactly the same thing as the boys. Dhikr refers to Remembering the Gods name. It typically involving the repetition of the names of God, supplications or formulas taken from hadith texts and verses of the Qur'an Dhikr of Allah is the most excellent act of Allah's servants and is stressed over a hundred times in the Holy Qur'an Tasbih are usually beads upon a string, 99 or 100 in number, which correspond to the Names of God in the Qur'an and other recitations. The beads are used to keep track of the number of recitations that make up the dhikr. Some Islamic scholars argue that using the beads are forbidden, however. Many claim that the usage of the fingers to count is better as that is what was practiced by Muhammad. In the group devotional exercises, Sufis repeat it in rhythmic chant. A group dhikr ceremony in Arabic countries is usually called the hadrah Pentateuch The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses, but regarded by modern scholarship as the result of several centuries of later literary activities. - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy - The Jews called it "Torah" (instruction) which is often rendered in English by "Law" - The Torah is the first of three sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), the founding religious document of Judaism,[4]Messiannic, and Hebrew belief - The Zohar, the most significant text in Jewish mysticism, states that the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and that it was used as the blueprint for Creation. - Besides the narrative, the Torah also contains statements or principles of law and ethics. Tefillin Small black leather boxes, containing words of scripture (four sets of biblical verses Parshiot), tied to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs. -Tefillin are biblical in origin, and are commanded within the context of several laws outlining a Jew's relationship to God -Putting on Tefillin is the first mitzvah assumed by a Jewish male upon his Bar Mitzvah. - Tefillin are worn each weekday morning, but not on the Sabbath or on most Jewish holidays. - Among observant Jews, Tefillin is a mitzvah of the greatest significance -The first verse in the Tefillin is the Shema verse Ummah The Muslims Community - The phrase Ummah Wahida in the Qur'an (the "One Community") refers to all of the Islamic world unified.- In its widest sense, however, the term, both in the Qur'an and in Islamic tradition, sometimes refers to all believers in monotheistic religions (including Christians and Jews) and sometimes to the entire human community. Hajj the annual pilgrimage to Mecca (but if one cannot do it due to financial or physical reasons, it is okay). It is the last pillar out of the five. The Prophet (SAW) said that Islam is built on Five Pillars and Hajj is one of them. It is part of the religious system of faith and social responsibility, worship, and piety. It is instituted by Abraham (AS) at Gods command after his son Ishmael was ordered to build the Kaba. Therefore, its ritual elements are understood as re-enacting the experiences of Abraham (AS) Quran declares him as the first true Muslim and father of prophets. Pilgrimage begins with the lesser hajj (umrah) performed in the Great Mosque and includes tawaf (walking counter-clockwise around Kaba) and running between the two hills of al-Safa and al-Marwa. The hajj ends with final circumambulation of the Kaba and the completion of the lesser hajj (umrah) for people who did not do it. Tradition believes that a person returns from a sincerely performed hajj free from all sings, as on the day when he/she was born. Hajj is regarded as a form of resurrection/rebirth. Its completion marks a new stage in the life of a Muslim. Hajj is a more inner/private voluntary dimension, whereas zakat is a more public/outer obligatory dimension. This term is significant in the Islamic tradition. Predestination the notion that God anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains (fate) every individual to either salvation or damnation (condemnation to eternal hell/punishment). This idea came around the time of the Reformation movement from the 1520s to 1560s
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