o -It means son of the Commandment and is refer to the initiation of a thirteen-year-old boy into adult ritual
responsibilities in the synagogue service.
o -It gives right to take part in leading religious services, to count in a minyan (the minimum number of people needed
to perform certain parts of religious services), to form binding contracts, to testify before religious courts and to marry.
o -The celebrant is called up to the Torah to recite a blessing over the weekly reading.
o -Some branches of Judaism parallel it with a Bat Mitzvah for girls
o -In modern times, the religious service is followed by a reception that is often as elaborate as a wedding reception,
gifts are commonly given
o -In Orthodox and Chasidic practice, women are not permitted to participate in religious services in these ways, so a
bat mitzvah, if celebrated at all, is usually little more than a party. In other movements of Judaism, the girls do exactly
the same thing as the boys.
refers to Remembering the Gods name. It typically involving the repetition of the names of God, supplications or
formulas taken from hadith texts and verses of the Qur'an
Dhikr of Allah is the most excellent act of Allah's servants and is stressed over a hundred times in the Holy Qur'an
Tasbih are usually beads upon a string, 99 or 100 in number, which correspond to the Names of God in the Qur'an and
other recitations. The beads are used to keep track of the number of recitations that make up the dhikr.
Some Islamic scholars argue that using the beads are forbidden, however. Many claim that the usage of the fingers to
count is better as that is what was practiced by Muhammad.
In the group devotional exercises, Sufis repeat it in rhythmic chant.
A group dhikr ceremony in Arabic countries is usually called the hadrah
The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses, but regarded by modern scholarship as the
result of several centuries of later literary activities.
- Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy
- The Jews called it "Torah" (instruction) which is often rendered in English by "Law"
- The Torah is the first of three sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), the founding religious document of
Judaism,Messiannic, and Hebrew belief
- The Zohar, the most significant text in Jewish mysticism, states that the Torah was created prior to the creation of the
world, and that it was used as the blueprint for Creation.
- Besides the narrative, the Torah also contains statements or principles of law and ethics.
Small black leather boxes, containing words of scripture (four sets of biblical verses Parshiot), tied to the forehead and
forearm by leather thongs.
-Tefillin are biblical in origin, and are commanded within the context of several laws outlining a Jew's relationship to God
-Putting on Tefillin is the first mitzvah assumed by a Jewish male upon his Bar Mitzvah.
- Tefillin are worn each weekday morning, but not on the Sabbath or on most Jewish holidays.
- Among observant Jews, Tefillin is a mitzvah of the greatest significance
-The first verse in the Tefillin is the Shema verse
The Muslims Community
- The phrase Ummah Wahida in the Qur'an (the "One Community") refers to all of the Islamic world unified.- In its widest sense, however, the term, both in the Qur'an and in Islamic tradition, sometimes refers to all believers in
monotheistic religions (including Christians and Jews) and sometimes to the entire human community.
Hajj the annual pilgrimage to Mecca (but if one cannot do it due to financial or physical reasons, it is okay). It is the last
pillar out of the five. The Prophet (SAW) said that Islam is built on Five Pillars and Hajj is one of them. It is part of the
religious system of faith and social responsibility, worship, and piety. It is instituted by Abraham (AS) at Gods command
after his son Ishmael was ordered to build the Kaba. Therefore, its ritual elements are understood as re-enacting the
experiences of Abraham (AS) Quran declares him as the first true Muslim and father of prophets. Pilgrimage begins
with the lesser hajj (umrah) performed in the Great Mosque and includes tawaf (walking counter-clockwise around
Kaba) and running between the two hills of al-Safa and al-Marwa. The hajj ends with final circumambulation of the
Kaba and the completion of the lesser hajj (umrah) for people who did not do it. Tradition believes that a person
returns from a sincerely performed hajj free from all sings, as on the day when he/she was born. Hajj is regarded as a
form of resurrection/rebirth. Its completion marks a new stage in the life of a Muslim. Hajj is a more inner/private
voluntary dimension, whereas zakat is a more public/outer obligatory dimension. This term is significant in the Islamic
the notion that God anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains (fate) every individual to either salvation or
damnation (condemnation to eternal hell/punishment). This idea came around the time of the Reformation movement
from the 1520s to 1560s