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David Perley

Themes: Judaism: sees human history as reflection of desires and demands of god Founded 3200 yrs ago at Mount Sinai when a divine revelation was delivered through Moses to the people Israel -agreement (covenant) still followed today sealed at Mount Sinai Bar mitzvah- coming of age 13 yrs son of commandment every saturday Bat mitzvah-coming of age daughter of commandment Sabbath Saturday is the rest day for the jews - Day of prayer and public assembly in the synagogue(jewish house of worship and community meeting) - Teen reads 2 selections from Hebrew bible nd o 1 from Pentateuch and 1 from prophets (2 section from Hebrew bible) Pentateuch 5 books of Moses (first section of Hebrew bible) Hebrew bible 3 sections (Pentateuch, prophets & writings) 13 adulthood begins right of passage to maturity age of ritual and moral responsibility not adult status in modern world minyan quorum of 10 to begin group prayer , teen may be called to read from sacred scripture and recite blessings Torah first scripture 13 yr old reads aloud in public in synagogue - Religious law - Hebrew bible and all commentaries on it - 5 books of Moses - Written in ancient Hebrew on scroll (must know ancient script and traditional melodies to which words are chanted) - Ultimate repository of religious truth expected to study it throughout life - Values of community Bar mitzvah/bat mitzvah gives thanks for scripture to guide people Israel, city of Jerusalem, dynasty of david, Sabbath Congregation: says - Jews are different from anyone else because they are given responsibility to study and keep the Torah - Some services conducted in local English/French language - Males to called to Torah (minority in north America) - Similar but not equivalent coming of age ceremonies for girls - Others prefer service in Hebrew or learn Hebrew chants - Substitute essay writing, social action and other goodworks - Family of teen celebrates by hosting a dinner/luncheon simple or grand to celebrate fams thuccess and good fortune Late 18 century: jews began to achieve legal rights, gain in affluence and take part in intellectual life of European societies Bar mitzvah simple matter between rabbi and teen - Could be conducted any day torah is read (mon, thurs, sat) Post bar mitzvah part of sabbath service for whole congregation to be apart of - Preserves tradtion by renewing it Judaism: Gave rise to Christianity and islamspiritual lineage traces back to Abraham - Smallest of the 3 tradtions - Monotheism belief in 1 god greater historical influence - Hebrew bible gives to people of the lord - Christianity and islam preoccupied with their own interpretations, fail at appreciating interpretation of shared heritage Possible to join jewish community by converting Tradition is commonly more inherited and for that reason Judaism is an ethnic religion some jews say yes to ethnic identity but no to religion North Americans, Europeans and Israelis identiy themselves as jews but do not take part in religious tradition member of cultural community with distinctive literary and artistic traditions, foods and folkways and various social, historical milieus - religion to them is a aprt of their culture but does not define them Cannot call someone a jew based on biological heredity because of conversions and people of diff backgrounds marrying in total jews under 14 million worldwide (half in Israel, Americas, Europe) st 21 century world population of jews is 1/3 smaller than it was in 1939 1939- 2 world war began over in 1945 6 million European jews died due to Nazis (political party that ruled Germany) in the holocaust Reform, conservative and orthodox groups of jews in Americas - Differences reflected in ritual practice not belief or doctrine - Depends on history of Judaism in each country - Christianity divisions depend on differences in belief and doctrine Jews believe that God expects all humans to follow same fundamental moral code revealed to Noah form of covenant (agreement) after primeval flood accessible to everyone -jews bound to subsequent covenant via prophet Moses at Mount Sinai God took israilite people out of Egypt, claimed them as his peopleresponded that lord will be their godpromise confirmed at mt Sinai where Hebrews were commanded to follow special set of rules not to be preferred over any other but thought they were gods special people because they have been saved from slavery and elected to fulfill a special responsibility to serve as gods priests Biblical period History of a people as they understand and follow a god who has chosen them to serve as an instrument Hebrew bible sacred scripture for Christians and muslims Liberal accepts modern historical principles and reserves right to question historical accuracy of biblical text like modern Christian and muslim scholars - Distinguish between myth, legend and history Tradition- every word of text is literally true Text must have been dictated to Moses and prophets by divine inspiration Key moment: match iraelities narratives with accounts of same people and events in texts of neighbours 1206 BCE monumental stone in Egypt inscribed with hymn describing victories of egyption pharaoh me- ne-ptah refers to wandering people not fixed with territory 13 century BCE identified as people Israel (biblical legend vs biblical history) Genesis: Ch1) Primeval history of universe god creates heaven and earth from what was chaotic and primal waters covered earth God divided light from darkness and created different things on each of the first 6 days creation of humanity (male and female) 7 day god rested weekly Sabbath (sundown Friday night to sundown Saturday) Ch2) god causes mist to rise from ground with vegetation sprouting Creates primal man, Adam and plants a garden in Eden (man placed first then animals and then woman Eve) Passages in bible say god created both light and darkness, good and evil zoroastrians Genesis 1 ordered view of creation as arranged by days of the week priestly hierarchy (God (creator), Sabbath (period of rest),humanity(male/female) Ch1 priestly writer Ch2- ancient Hebrew epic compiled by kings court JE Isaiah 45 aka 2 isaiah written by Persians Early interpretations of bible god created everything, there are no separate gods so dont worship sun, stars,moon all created by god Genesis2 Adam- Hebrew word for man Eve- living Both adam and eve stand naked innocence, peace and harmony Genesis3-childlike nakedness contrasted with shrewdness where serpent convinces them to eat fruit from tree of knowledge of good and evil Adam-unwary,trusting uses simple sentences Eve-curious,intelligent uses complex sentencesthink though problems Couple lacks moral sense ability to make moral distinctions Eves sharp intelligence causes their downfall, eats the forbidden fruit that god directly told them not to eat Moral capacity acquired by eating forbidden fruit shame and guilt experienced (knowledge of good and evil) positive to humans Pain and evil are consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment but god still shows his care while expelling adam and eve Etiological stories that offer to explain the causes or reasons behind our present circumstances (pain during childbirth, why we work for a living, why snakes crawl on the ground) Christian interpretation: disobedience is an orginal sin insists a deep relationship between sexuality,sin,death and Satan (enemy of god snake) First 11 chapters of genesis how badly humans govern themselves when left to be free and follow their own conscience violence and corruption fills earth leading god to find a way to destroy their evil society
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