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Key terms for final exam

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Perley

Bar Mitzvah: initiation of a thirteen year old boy into adult ritual responsibilities in the synagogue service. Some branches of Judaism parallel it with a Bat Mitzvah for girls. It occurs as part of a congregations weekly worship. In the Bar Mitzvah (son of the commandments), the teenager reads a selection from one of the five books of Moses and from the Prophets. Making the onset of adulthood at 13 is based on an ancient concept of legal majority. It publicly marks that the child has arrived at ritual and moral responsibility. Pentateuch: the first five books of the Bible, attributed to Moses which have to come to be known as the Torah. Today, the Pentateuch has served as the peoples identity since the Temple doesnt exist anymore. The first five books of the Torah are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. Seder: order. The term is used for the ritual Passover supper celebrated in the home, whose liturgy is called the Hagadah. The six divisions of the Mishnah are also called orders or seders. The chief spiritual significance of the ritual is ones sense of historical participation where the ritual celebrates and imitates the Passover and it tells every Jew to look at themselves as if they were a part of the Exodus. Septuagint: the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, made in Alexandria in Hellenistic times. The Jewish community adopted Greek culture and many Jews lost the ability to read Hebrew and only knew Greek. So the Torah was translated in the 3 century BCE. According to the letter of Aristeas, this translation was the product of seventy scholars in Egypt, who, working independently created identical drafts for the King by miracle. In this version, the three divisions of Hebrew Scripture; Law, Prophets and Writing, were rearranged into four: law, history, poetry and prophecy. Teffelin: small leather boxes, also termed phylacteries, containing words of scripture, tied to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs. Traditional Jews wear them in prayer and their purpose is to fulfill the Biblical commandment to bind the words of the Torah upon the hand and as frontlets between the eyes. Eucharist: the ritual re-enactment of Jesus last meal with his disciples, patterned after his sharing bread and wine as his body and blood at his final Passover meal with his disciples. The Orthodox term it the liturgy, Catholics the mass, and Protestant the Lords Supper or Holy Communion. A Greek word that means thanksgiving, the Eucharist is universal among Christians. During the mass, the officiating priest will repeat the account of Jesus last supper, invited the congregation to co
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