Key Terms for Religion Exam

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14 Dec 2011
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Key Terms for the Lecture on Hinduism:
sanatana dharma: eternal law. An alternative term designating a
comprehensive tradition, but it is common in only a few parts of India & some
classes of society. The term is seldom used to refer to local manifestations of
the faith.
has a literal meaning of eternal faith, and is common in a few parts of India
and in some classes of society. It is the spiritual laws for which human
existence is governed. Since Hinduism was a term invented by the British
colonists sanatana dharma is the closest thing to represent the hidden
meaning behind what is presently known as Hinduism. Its enternal law.
- has a literal meaning of eternal faith , and is common in a few parts
- of India and in some classes of society. It is the spiritual laws for which
human
- existence is governed. Since Hinduism was a term invented by the
British
- colonists sanatana dharma is the closest thing to represent the hidden
meaning
- behind what is presently known as Hinduism. Sanatana dharma to
human
- -Eternal faith; religious and social duty, including religiousness and
faith
- -An alternative term designating comprehensive tradition
- -Local manifestation of faith
- eternal law. An alternative term designating a comprehensive
tradition, but it is
- common in only a few parts of India & some classes of society. The
term is seldom used to refer to local manifestations of the faith.
- means eternal faith. It’s only common in a few parts of India and in
- some classes of society. This term is usually used to refer to local
manifestation of the faith.
tilak (or tilaka): forehead markings
Bharata: indigenous term for India
- is a mark worn on the for-head and other parts of the body. It could be worn
in different form, depending on who you worship. Symbolizes the third eye,
that is
associated with many Hindu gods
- A dot of mark on the forehead made with colored powder. Or forehead
markings
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Karma: Action, good and bad, as it is believed to determine the quality of
rebirth in future lives.
Samsara: The continuing cycle of death and rebirths
Indus Valley Civilization: Through archaeology finding, they found the lost
civilization (100 years ago)..the Indus Valley Civilization -> completely
disappeared
Amazed at how advanced they were.
They constructed cities with plumbing system (thousand years
ago) in stone houses..it has a toilet facility
Found great bath, not for hygenic purposes but religious..to
purify
Indus Valley Culture- most are the roots of Hinduism -> most are
educated guesses
The Indus Valley civilization may have spanned over one million
square kilometers.
Concerned with procreation and purity
Worship male animals as a way of incorporating their sexual
powers.
Female reproduction powers were also regarded as sacred.
Female principle may have been revered as a goddess.
Purification practices, meditation, and the well-organized cities
suggest the importance of order and restraint.
Female principle referred to as goddess because they are able
to give a life through conceiving a child
Refers to one of the origins of the Hindu religion as we know it
today. It is said that the Hindu practices can date back to this
ancient civilization that flourished between 3000 to 1500BCE. Two
of the well known developments of this civilization are the towns
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro which were roughly 480 km apart and
yet had so many cultural and lifestyle similarities. Both of these
towns are collectively known to have the ‘Harrapan culture’, which
is what modern Hinduism is derived from. This culture consisted of
many things such as perhaps a ritual bath area as was found in the
sites as a possible area where ritual ceremonies were done.
Mohenjo-Daro: most impt excavating sites of the Indus Valley
Civilization
Harappa: most impt excavating sites of the Indus Valley Civilization
Aryans: Very odd religion -> ancient not much info, all religions are quite
ancient
3000-4000 before C.E was when Hinduism was practiced
Passed on as an oral tradition (no records on how it was
practiced, who founded it etc.)
Very conservative tradition-> certain practices due to the way it
was transmitted
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- invaded and conquered India (brought their religion -> sanscript,
language, some practices)
They were not highly organized.
They were nomads (roamed around, not civilized) rather than settled
agriculturalists.
The Aryan language evolved into the Sanskrit, the official
language of the Hindu religion.
Their language was unique-> Sanskrit-> sacred language ->
language of the Gods -> the father/mother of the European
language
Ex: triangle. Same meaning in Sanskrit, three in a number
Sanskrit: language brought in by the Aryans. Language known to only
priests, language used to write the Vedas.
Puranas: The body of a victim which has sacrificed by the gods
- the body of a victim was dismembered and from his mind came the
moon from his eyes came the sun. from his head the sky his feet
earth.
Bhagavad-Gita: Some who practice Hinduism, some haven’t even read all of
them.
Only the priests knew everything about the Veda
These ^^ are mythical stories well-known to the Indians
Vedas: Almost everything we know about them comes from a collection of
writings known as the Veda.
Veda=the canaan of Hinduism
- Aryans have a collection of writings= veda -> when they
brought it to India, it became very sacred
So important is the Veda that Hinduism is sometimes called
Vaidik dharma, meaning the religions of the Veda
Vaidik dharma=the rules of the Veda
Insiders: Veda represents reality- find everything in the Veda
Some even claim that the way to construct nuclear energy can
be found in the Veda- as well as all the info. About the space
The words of the Veda, according to traditional conviction, were
revealed to ancient seers called ‘rishis’.
The Veda divides into four samhitas or collections:
Rig-Veda
Yajur-Veda
Sama-Veda
Atharva-Veda
Rg-Veda: humans, dedicated to praising the deities/gods
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