Sanatana dharma- means eternal faith. It’s only common in a few parts of India and in
some classes of society. This term is usually used to refer to local manifestation of the faith.
Tilak (tilaka) - is a mark worn on the for-head and other parts of the body. It could be worn
in different form, depending on who you worship. Symbolizes the third eye, that is
associated with many Hindu gods
Bharata- another term used a long time ago to refer to India
Karma- (action) good or bad, as it is used to determine the quality of rebirth in our future
life. Human have free will to choose good or evil and suffer the consequence
Samsara- mean the continuing cycle of rebirth. According to Hindus the goal of human life
is to be free of samsara and this is done through attaining moksha
Mohenjo-Daro- a town that is located on the banks of the Indus river (name means “mound
of the dead”) it known to be a religious town, it shares some of the same religious concepts
as the towns around it.
Indus Valley Civilization- Hinduism originated here in the early 20th century, it was said
that it had grown from a fusion of the indigenous religions of the Indus Valley with the faith
of the Aryans
Harappa- is a town located on the banks of the Indus River and has similar view in culture
Aryans- Aryans are indo European people thought to have migrated into India from other
parts of Asia, but some say that India was their original land.
Sanskrit- the official language of the Hindu religion it is said to be sacred (only Brahmins
can read it)
Puranas- “old tales” stories about deities that became important after the Vedic period
(teaches the importance of the Vedas)
Bhagavad gita- a section of the mahabrata epic recounting a conversation between Krishna
and the warrior Arjuna, in which Krishna explains the nature of god and the human soul.
(This book is a guide to life)
Vedas- the 4 collection of hymns and rituals that constitute the oldest and the most highly
respected Hindu literature (1. Rig-Veda, 2. Yajuveda, 3. Samaveda, 4. Atharvaved) consist of
the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature
Rig-Veda- the oldest and the most important Veda (all other Veda is based upon this and it
contains various hymns) Indra is the most important god from the rig Veda
Yajurveda- this Veda is for purifying the mind and awakening the inner consciousness
Samaveda- contains in it only the deep meaning of the counter part of the rig Vedic mantra
and has added dimension of music.
Atharvaveda- it wasn’t always accepted as a Veda, it contains various hymns but also
contains some popular spells which are outside of the strictly ritual-knowledge orientation
of the other Vedas. And the hymns are more diverse character.
Samhitas- contains simple hymns
Brahmins- specific rituals performed in special occasions (weddings, baby showers, etc.)
Aranyakas- known as forest texts to be used by those who left society to reside in the forest
to gain spiritual knowledge
Upanishads- philosophical texts in the form of reported conversation on the theory of the
Vedic ritual and the nature of knowledge, composed around the 6th century BCE (Upanishad
means the inner or mystical teaching)
Prana- an internal air current of the body is often spoken of as the basic animating
principal. (We cannot describe life) “Prana” this is what the Hindu think about human
Atman- self (how we understand oneself) our atman will enter another body and have
another life, this cycle will continue till this atman achieves liberation. The individual self,
“atman” is also what Hindus think about human beings
Brahman- the highest and supreme god of Hinduism, The creator of the universe and of all
Rita- the world is believed to be governed by an abstract impersonal principal called “Rita”
is a principal that allows change to take place and keeps harmony, this is how Hinduism
conceives the world of nature
Purusha-the body of a victim was dismembered and from his mind came the moon from his
eyes came the sun. from his head the sky his feet earth.