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quiz 1

Course Code
David Perley
Study Guide

of 2
DHIKR: the most characteristic Sufi practice is the ritual called the dhikr (remembrance)
of God, which may be public or private. The congregational dhikr ritual is usually held
before the dawn or evening prayers. It consists of the repetition of the name of God, Allah,
or the shahadah, there is no god except God. The dhikr is often accompanied by special
bodily movements and, in some Sufi orders, by elaborate breathing techniques. Often the
performance of the dhikr is what distinguishes the various Sufi orders from one another.
HADITH: tradition. The body of texts reporting Muhammads words and example, taken by
Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the
literature. It is the most important component of sunnah because it is the most direct
expression of the Prophets opinions or judgements regarding community conductions
HAJJ: The annual pilgrimage to Mecca which is the fifth pillar of Islam, instituted by
Abraham at Gods command after he and his son Ishmael were ordered to build the Kaba.
This is the practice of re-enacting the experience of Abraham. Once in Mecca, the pilgrims
begin with the lesser hajj. This ritual is performed in the precincts of the Great Mosque and
includes the tawaf (walking counter-clockwise around the Kaba) and running between the
two hills of al-Safa and al-Marwa. This place according to Islam tradition, is the ancient
well of Zamzam and the water of Zamzam is considered holy, and pilgrims often take home
containers of it as bless gifts for family and friends. In the end, the hajj ends with a final
circumambulation of the Kaba and the completion of the rites of the lesser hajj for those
who have not done so. Tradition asserts that a person returns from a sincerely performed
hajj free from all sins, as on the day when he or she was born. Thus the hajj is regarded as a
form of resurrection or rebirth, and its completion marks a new stage in the life of a
ID AL-FITR: The holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast. A three day celebration
during which people exchange gifts and well-wishing visits, children receive gifts and wear
brightly coloured new clothes, and people visit the graves of loved ones, where special sweet
dishes are distributed to the poor.
IJMA: the consensus of religio-legal scholars; one of the two secondary principles used in
jurisprudence; some legal schools give it more weight than others.
IMAMIS (twelvers’);
QIBLAH: The direction of prayer, marked in mosques by a niche inside the wall nearest
Mecca. The qiblah was changed from Jerusalem to the Kaba in Mecca at it was trying to
distinguish Islam from Judaism within two years of the arrival of the prhphet
SUNNAH (279)
SUNNIS: Muslims who trace succession to the prophets authority through the caliphate,
which lasted until the 20th century; the larger of the two main divisions of Islam, according
for 5-6th of all muslims today
SURAH: A chapter of the Quran; there are 114 in all. Arranged mainly in decreasing order
of length except for the first (the Fatihah)
UMMAH: community a Muslim community. It is a community Muhammad created by
laying its foundation on Islamic principles. A society united by faith