RLGA02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Oral Torah, Tefillin, Kaaba

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Religion
Course
RLGA02H3
Professor
World Religion Final Exam Review Notes
Dhikr: Dhikr is the most characteristic Sufi prayer. It is the devotional excercise of remembering God, the
English translation of dhikr. It is usually held before the dawn or evening prayer. It consists of the
repetition of the God’s name, Allah, and the Shahadah (There is no god except God. This type of
devitional prayer or submission is usually paired with bodily movements and elaborate brething
techniques and may also include the occasions where devotees dance in a circle. This is a ritual,
devotional practice, that is performed by the Sufis who were early Muslim mystics, and a very
emotional ritual. (Islam).
Bar Mitzvah: A ceremony in the Jewish religion that marks the coming of age of thirteen-year-olds. In
Aramaic, the term literally means ‘son of commandmants’, and celebrated for both boys and girls (Bat
Mitzvah) at this tender age, which initiates them into adulthood and authorizing them for new
responsibilities. This teenager is also required to take ownership of faith to pursue independence and
responsibility for following Jewish traditions. Some of the teenagers do decide to continue their Jewish
education after this ceremony, to act upon this ownership and shows that this person has become
resposible and has reached a new age of maturity. There are three basic stages that takes place in the
bar mitzvah: 1) he is called to the stand to recite a small passage from the Torah orally. 2) The derashah
which is the second stage where the boy gives a public speech to the audience thanking his family for
their unconditional love and care as well as his guests for attending his bar mitzvah ceremony. 3) The
last stage of the bar mitzvah is the festive meal known as the Se'udah which is the festive party
following the religious ceremony. In the oral reading of the Torah, the teenager reads one section from
the Hewbrew Bible/Pentateuch and another passage from Prophets, in the Torah. An important material
used in this is the tefillin, which can be deifned as a traditional Jewish hat worn by the person who is
holding the Bar Mitzvah. (Jewish)
Predestnation: The idea that God anticipates and controls all human actions and decides whether the
individual in question goes to salvation or damnation. (appoints them in the direction they deserve. This
can be related to the idea that muslims believe that there is a day of resurrection when God decides
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what happens after you die. The idea that the sovereign God has a predestined fate for everyone was
first introduced by Calvin, who also played a major role in magisterial reformation. (Christianity &
related to Islam)
Pentateuch: The Pentateuch is the complete version of the torah, written and oral text. Mainly refers to
the five books of Moses. This was truly the beginning of the Hebrew Bible. The five books are the
Genesis, Exodus, Leuiticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The oral torah consists of written
interpretations of the knowledge that Moses had and the events that occurred in the past. Revelations
played a major part in Jewish history, as it believed that increased revelations is a way for people to
learn and for God to shower his mercy on humans. It is also believed that revelations are for humans to
learn from their mistakes, complete an insufficiency and to give us another chance to truly understand
God’s message. Most major stories are found in the 5 books of Moses. The Pentateuch is one of the
major parts of the tanakh, the complete version of the torah (oral and written). The first five
books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern scholars as the
product of several centuries of later literary activity. (68)
Ummah: Ummah is the Arabic word for community and this can now be deifned as the Muslim
community. This community involve those who are Muslim and who are bound by the Shahadah and
whose lives are based on Islamic principles, Shariah. Therefore, this includes various groups of Muslims,
Sunnis and Shias. The Quran refers to the Ummah as the best community because there people are
invited to do good and refrain from evil. It is known as the third most intimate relationship that Muslims
have, written in the Quran. - Every person is responsible both for his or her own mortality and for the
mortality of the entire Muslim ummah (Q.3:104) (Islam)
Tefillin: Tefillin is Phylacteries( can be deifned as a greek term for protective charm) and is mostly
known as a traditional praryer garb worn by men on weekdays. It consistes of two small black boxes that
hold passages from scriptures. There are two long leather straps attached to the boxes, that are used to
tie the boxes to the forehead and an upperarm, facing one’s heart. The significance of the tefillin is that
it is a sign of tribute to God for saving the slaves from Egypt, who participated in the journey of the
Exodus. It is also refered to the traditional worn by teenage boys during their bar mitzvah. It is worn to
fulfil the commandment in the Pentateuch, to bind the words of the Torah opn the hand and as frontlets
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between the eyes. Pious Jews were these scrolls during the daily morning prayers, except the Sabbath
(which is held on Saturday.
Hajj: Hajj is the annual pilgrimage to the Kaaba, the house of God in Mecca, and is the fifth pillar of
Islam. This was first instituated by Abraham and his son Ishmael, after they were instructed to build the
Kaaba. Hajj is essentially re-enacting the experiences of Abraraham, who is known as the father of the
Prophets and the first true Muslim. It is highly recommended for all Muslims and required for those who
are sane, are above a certain age of maturity, have sufficient money to do so and are in good
circumstances. Hajj is a form of worship, which includes taking rounds around the Kaaba, going up and
down the mountains Safa and Marwah, living in the area of Mina and throwing rocks at pillars that
represent the devil. The pilgrammige is concluded with the celebration of Eid and the sacrifice of
animals, commemorating the vital event in Abraham’s life where he got the order from God to sacrifice
his son. Hajj should be performaed at least once in a person’s lifetime and it is believed that all past sins
are forgiven, starting a whole new life for the person. One of the more special moments of this
pillgrammige is the visitation to the mountain of Arafat. The cave Hira, where the Prophet Muhammad
spent a lot of time is located higher up this mountain and it is believed that many prayers are granted
while in this area. During this pilgrammige, there are several ruleswhile performing this pilgrimage (like
men wearing only two pieces of white linen around them and women wearing very simple cotton
clothing). This pilgrimage starts on the eight of Dhul-Hijjah (the twelfth month of the Islmic calendar).
Glossolalia: This means speking in tongues, and refers to speaking out ecstatically in an exotic prayer
language. This is a distinguished feature of charismatic movement and is believed to be a behaviour
inspirised by the holy spirit. It is the protestant phenomenon and was a charismatic activity that has
spread to Catholic Christiands since the 1970’s.
Mi’raj: This is the miraculous night journey that the Prophet Muhammad went on. During the night, it
was reported that he travelled from Mecca to Jerusalem ad then ascended to heaven, from the Masjid
Al-Aqsa. The angel Gabreel comes to the Prophet, who is taking on a steed, Buraq. In heaven, the
Prophet Muhammad meets other Porphets and leads them in prayer. After that, God instructs the
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Document Summary

Dhikr: dhikr is the most characteristic sufi prayer. It is the devotional excercise of remembering god, the. It is usually held before the dawn or evening prayer. It consists of the repetition of the god"s name, allah, and the shahadah (there is no god except god. This type of devitional prayer or submission is usually paired with bodily movements and elaborate brething techniques and may also include the occasions where devotees dance in a circle. This is a ritual, devotional practice, that is performed by the sufis who were early muslim mystics, and a very emotional ritual. (islam). Bar mitzvah: a ceremony in the jewish religion that marks the coming of age of thirteen-year-olds. Aramaic, the term literally means son of commandmants", and celebrated for both boys and girls (bat. Mitzvah) at this tender age, which initiates them into adulthood and authorizing them for new responsibilities.

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