LOGOS- “word” in the sense of eternal divine intelligence and purpose, an idea
prominent in Greek thought at the time of Jesus. Related to the Pentecost.
NICENE CREED- An ancient doctrinal formulation longer and more explicit than the
Apostle’s Creed and still in use through regular recitation in the Catholic mass. The
apostle’s creed, a brief statement of Christian doctrinal belief dating from about the third
century but ascribed to the apostles or first-generation followers of Jesus, and often
recited in unison by congregations Describes their belief in God
PENTECOST- The fiftieth day after Easter, commemorated as the occasion when
Jesus’ followers experienced dramatically the presence of the Holy Spirit and the
ability to preach and be understood in different languages. Related to Glossolalia.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION- The Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine of the
Eucharist are at the moment of consecration in the service miraculously
transformed into the body and blood of Christ. Related to the Eucharist.
Dhikr-“remembering” God’s name. In group devotional exercises. Sufis repeat in
in a rhythmic chant. The devotees often dance in a circle. Related to mysticism
and how Sufi’s stress that God is always there.
fana- “passing away” a supreme stage of ecstasy in the sufi mystical tradition.
fiqh- jurisprudence, process of human comprehension, interpretation and
codification of the shariah. Relates to the three ways to develop new laws
reasoning, analogy and consensus.
hadith-Texts containing traditional reports of Muhammad’s words and example,
taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine. A hadith is an
individual unit of literature, and the Hadith is the literature considered as a corpus.
Hajj- The annual pilgrimage to Makkah. Reflects the last pilgrimage Muhammad
took to Makkah to purify the Kabbah.
`Id al-Fitr- The holiday that celebrates breaking the month-long daylight fast at
the end of the Ramadan. The festival traditionally occurs following the actual
sighting of the new moon.
Ijma- The consensus of the community’s religio-legal scholars, used as a
principle for extending application of Islamic Law. Some schools made more
extensive use of it than others. A way to derive new laws from the holy scriptures.
Imamis- “twelvers” Shi’is who recognize as legitimate heirs to the Prophet’s
authority a succession of twelve imams, the last of who,, who is expected to
return as the Mahdi, has been in occultation since 874 They believe that he will
return with Jesus to restore justice on this world.
Jahiliyah- Ignorance or barbarism, a Muslim term characterizing Arabia before
Islam as unredeemed before the preaching of the Qur’anic message. Muhammad
as the revivifier of the faith as Abraham was the first Muslim.