Final Exam: Key Terms
Exile - The deportation of Jewish leadership from Jerusalem to
Mesopotamia by the conquering Babylonians in 586 BCE. A rupture of
local Israelite political, ritual, and agricultural institutions, it marks
the transitions from Israelite religion to Judaism.
Kosher - A designation of food as ritually acceptable, implying that all
rabbinic regulations regarding animal slaughter and the like have
been observed in its preparation.
Midrash - Commentary on scripture.
Pentateuch - The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by
tradition to Moses, but regarded by modern scholarship as the result of
several centuries of later literary activity.
Tanakh - The three part Hebrew scriptural collection composed of
Torah or law, Nebi’im or prophets and Ketuvim or sacred writings and
named as an acronym of these three terms.
Ashkenazim - Jews of northern and eastern Europe as distinct from
those of the Mediterranean.
Bar Mitzvah - Initiation of a thirteen year old boy into adult ritual
responsibilities in the synagogue service. Some branches of Judaism
parallel it with a Bat Mitzvah for girls.
Sephardim - The Jews of the pre-modern Mediterranean and Middle
Eastern world as contrasted with those of northern and eastern
Glossolalia - Speaking in strange tongues, which is a principal feature
of charismatic behavior.
Passion - The suffering and death of Jesus on the cross.
Sacrament - A ritual action seen as signifying divine grace. The most
widely accepted as sacraments are baptism and the Eucharist; the
Catholic Church has regarded these plus five others as sacraments
since the thirteenth century.
Transubstantiation - The Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine
of the Eucharist are at the moment of consecration in the service
miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Christ. (ON THE
Atonement - Christ’s restoration of humanity to a right relationship
with God, variously interpreted as divine victory over demonic power,
satisfaction of divine.