Second Term Test Study Guide
Bishop: Greek work ‘epiokopos’ for supervisor, the supervising priest of a district called a diocese. In
some branches of Christianity the bishop has charge of ordaining priests by ‘laying on the hands’ on the
head of the person inducted. Similarly, it was the bishop making his rounds in his diocese who could
confirm the baptism of new initiates into the community.
Canon: a standard. A scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture. The list of
acknowledged saints is likewise a canon. It includes the four gospels that had achieved universal
acceptance through Christendom. Canon law is the accumulated body of Church regulations and
discipline. Clergy subject to the rule of a particular cathedral or congregation are also sometimes termed
canons. Marcion was excommunicated by the church since he come out with his own Canon which
rejected Mathew and only included ten letters by Paul and an edited text of Luke’s gospels and Acts.
Crucifix: a cross with an image of the suffering Jesus mounted on it. The main symbol of the faith was
existent before Constantine’s time, but flourished during his reign and now the crucifixion saviour was
Eucharist: the ritual re-enactment of Jesus’ last meal with his disciples, patterned after his sharing bread
and wine as his body and blood at his final Passover meal with his disciples. The Orthodox term it the
liturgy, Catholics the mass, and Protestant the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion. A Greek word that
means thanksgiving, the Eucharist is universal among Christians. During the mass, the officiating priest
will repeat the account of Jesus’ last supper, invited the congregation to ‘communicate’. When the person
receiving the communion (called communicant) receives the bread only, is said to received it in ‘one
kind’. But if dipped in wine before giving, it is said to be of both kinds.
Logos: word in the sense of eternal diving intelligence and purpose, an idea prominent in Greek thought
at the time of Jesus. In the opening passage of John, “was the logos and the logos was with God.” Logos
is a Greek Term with an arrow of meaning; it means divine intelligence and purpose. A god who can
create the world through his world, who can command the world with his word and redeem the world
through his word, is what John wants us to know. The incarnation of Jesus in the flesh was said as “the
logos became flesh and dwelt among us”
Pentecost: Greek for ‘fifty’. The fiftieth day after Easter, commemorated as the occasion when Jesus’
followers experienced dramatically the presence of the Holy Spirit and the ability to preach and be
understood in different languages. They experience this as a rush of wind and fire and they begin to speak.
This was during the Jewish festival of Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, seven weeks after the Passover. The
Christian Pentecost marks the emergence of the Church as missionary movement with a message fro all
people regarding love for one another.
Indulgences: releases from specified amounts of time in purgatory, a realm to which in Catholic doctrine
the soul proceeds after death for an unspecified period of preparation of enter heaven.
Trinity: the conception of God as having three ‘persons’ or manifestations: as father, as son, and as Holy
Spirit. The doctrine emerged during the late third century and was adopted after vigorous debate in the
Provide a description of the historical-critical perspective on the construction, organization, and
presentation of the gospels. Focus by referring to at least two gospels of your choice. How do the themes
in these biblical books differ from some of the key themes in the Hebrew bible or Old Testament as
discussed in readings and lectures?
-gospels are the sacred description of life of Jesus. Gospel means ‘Good news’ of coming of Jesus, the
messiah of that time. Mosaic means the portrait, the titles stick together. After the execution of Jesus,
there were no writings or guidance for people until different authors and scholars wrote the 4 Gospels
(Mark, Mathew, Luke and John). These talk about the life of Jesus, death and his teaching, the miracles he
did by healing and guidance for people after death of Jesus. Mark is known as ‘winged lion’ which means
strong, brave, leader, lion means from desert, so this gospel was written in desert. Mark’s gospel was the
simplest and straightforward among all. Talks about the life when Jesus was adult, and about John the
baptism and Jesus the son of God. Jesus was saviour of gentiles. Mark talks about how Jesus was executed
in Cross on day before Sabbath and later, 3 women went to see him and he was missing and had risen.
Luke is known as ‘winged OX’. He talks more about the life of Jesus when he was born and later about
his execution. He also called Jesus the savior of gentile. Luke adds 2 more chapters which are different
than Mark about the Baptism and ministry of Jesus. Mathew talks about the same things as it Luke, but
more detail than in Mark. Luke says that the judge knew Jesus was innocent but still executed him due to
pressure and later on Jesus after being executed returned to his followers. The three gospels are known as
synoptic gospel as the sources of them are same. Mathew and Luke talk in more detail as there is another
source document known as Q, Quelle in German which they use. John talks a little different than all 3 and
uses different source.
Mark said that God is not eternal and was born or created when rest of world was created. Luke’s gospel
concerned about cosmic significance rather than narrative. John concerned about mortality and offers
hope for life. Mathew said God was eternal and was also concerned about mortality.
Discuss the basic description of mysticism in the Christian tradition. Choose a couple of key individuals
in the Christian tradition (as mentioned in lectures or the text) to help describe a Christian, mystical view
of the divine. What themes might help compare “mysticism” in Christianity with “mysticism” in other
When Christianity started to rise in European nation, the challenge of pretests came into existence. Martin
Luther was a leader with strong, solid and firm qualities. He saw the wrong thing being done and stood up
to speak for him. At that time, there was sale of indulgences, which is time period when one’s soul stays
before entering the heaven. Fedrick used to exempt people for thousand years from pure gory if they visit
the church on appointed day and pay certain amount of donation. Luther found out that the proceeds from
the collector go to rebuilt of St. Peter and the rest half go into Archbisphop’s installation fee. He found
this unfair as the money of poor German was going in wrong hand, he argued that St. Peter rather be
rebuilt then to poorish the poor German and decitzen the people. Federick was not amused with Luther as
due to his protest the revenue will be affected as saint’s day was coming. Luther was to appear in council
known as diet but he did not vest his actions as result the judges did not listen to him. Luther then calls the
church as lavish. For one year, Luther hides as disguise and then publishes pamphlet. Using the
technology his pamphlets are easily produced and spread everywhere. People became more aware of his
teachings that faith is the most important thing and scriptures were used to identify the right. He argued
for ‘freedom of devotion’ he did not like the fact that churches and priest come in between the God and
people, din not like medication. People should be free to do what they want do and family is important as
well; nobody should be forced to worship, there should be freewill. His teachings inspired a lot of people
even nuns. Out of 12 nuns, 3 returned back to their families.