Bishop: Greek work ‘epiokopos’ for supervisor, the supervising pr iest of a district called a diocese. In
some branches of Christianity the bishop has charge of ordaining priests by ‘laying on the hands’ on the
head of the person inducted. Similarly, it was the bishop making his rounds in his diocese who could
confirm the baptism of new initiates into the community.
Canon: a standard. A scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture. The list of
acknowledged saints is likewise a canon. It includes the four gospels that had achieved universal
acceptance through Chr istendom. Canon law is the accumulated body of Church regulations and
discipline. Clergy subject to the rule of a particular cathedral or congregation are also sometimes termed
canons. Marcion was excommunicated by the church since he come out with his own Canon which
rejected Mathew and only included ten letters by Paul and an edited text of Luke’s gospels and Acts.
Crucifix: a cross with an image of the suffering Jesus mounted on i t. The main symbol of the faith was
existent before Constantine’s time, but flou rished dur ing his reign and now the crucifixion saviour was
Eucharist: the ritual re-enactment of Jesus’ last meal with his disciples, patterned after his sharing bread
and wine as his body and blood at his fina l Passover meal with his disciples. The Orthodox term it the
liturgy, Catholics the mass, and Protestant the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion. A Greek word that
means thanksgiving, the Eucharist is universal among Chr istians. Dur ing the mass, the officiating pr iest
will repeat the account of Jesus’ last supper, invited the congregation to ‘communicate’. When the pers on
receiving the com munion (called communicant) receives the bread only, is said to received it in ‘one
kind’. But if dipped in wine before giving, it is said to be of both kinds.
Logos: word in the sense of eternal diving intelligence and pur pose, an idea prominent in Greek thought
at the time of Jesus. In the opening passage of John, “was the logos and the logos was with God.” Logos
is a Greek Term with an ar row of meaning; it means divine intelligence and pur pose. A god who can
create the world through his world, who can command the world wit h his word and redeem the world
through his word, is what John wants us to know. The incarnation of Jesus in the flesh was said as “the
logos became f lesh and dwelt among us”
Pentecost: Greek for ‘f ifty’. The fiftieth day after Easter, commemorated as the occasion when Jesus’
followers experienced dramatically the presence of the Holy Spirit and the ability to preach and be
understood in different languages. They experience this as a rush of wind and f ire and they begin to speak.
This was during the Jewish festival of Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, seven weeks after the Passover. The
Christian Pentecost marks the emergence of the Church as missionary movement with a message fro all
people regarding love for one another.
Indulgences: releases from specified amounts of time in purgatory, a realm to which in Ca tholic doctrine
the soul proceeds after death for an unspecified period of preparation of enter heaven.
Trinity: the conception of God as having three ‘persons’ or manifestations: as father, as son, and as Holy
Spirit. The doctrine emerged dur ing the late third centur y and was adopted after vigorous debate in the
Provide a description of the historical-critical perspective on the construction, organizat ion, and
presentation of the gospels. Focus by referring to at least two gos pels of your choice. How do the themes
in these biblical books dif fer from some of the key themes in the Hebrew bible or Old Testament as
discussed in readings and lectures?
-gospels are the sacred description of l ife of Jesus. Gospel means ‘Good news’ of coming of Jesus, the
messiah of that time. Mosaic means the por trait, the titles stick together. After the execution of Jesus,
there were no writings or guidance for people until different authors and scholars wrote the 4 Gospels
(Mark, Mathew, Luke and John). These t alk about the life of Jesus, death and his teaching, the miracles he
did by healing and guidance for people after death of Jesus. Mark is known as ‘winged lion’ which means