Bar Mitzvah “ Son of the commandments’ the title given to a thirteen-year-old when he is
initiated into adult ritual responsibilities; some branches of Judaism also celebrate a Bat
Mitzvah for girls
Gemarah- The body of Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew text of the Mishnah,
which together with it makes up the Talmud (both the Jerusalem Talmud and the
Pentateuch- The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses but
regarded by modern scholars as the product of several centuries of literary activity
Septuagint- The Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures, made in Alexandria in
Teffillin- Small black leather boxes, also termed phylacteries, containing words of
scripture, tied to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs
Sedar—‘order’ the term used for the ritual Passover supper celebrated in the home; the six
divisions of the Mishnah are also called orders or seders
Canon- A standard; a scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture; the
list of awknowledged saints is likewise a canon. Canon law is the accumulated body of
Church regulations and discipline. Clergy subject to the rule of a particular cathedral or
congregation are also sometimes termed canons.
Glossolalia-speaking in ’tongues’ a distinguishing feature of charismatic movement
Transubstantiation-The catholic doctrine that in the Eucharistic service, the bread and
wine are miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
Eucharist- The ritual re-enactment of Jesus’ sacrifice of himself, patterned after his
sharing of bread and wine is his body and blood at the final Passover meal with his
disciples. Orthodox Christians term it the liturgy, Catholics the mass, and Protestants the
Lord’s supper or Holly communion.