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Study Guide for Islam Tradition

14 Pages
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Department
Religion
Course Code
RLGA02H3
Professor
David Perley

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Dhikr ‘Remembering Gods name; chanted
in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while
devotees dance in a circle.
Hadith The body of texts reporting
Muhammads sayings and early followers of Islam, taken by Muslims as a
foundation for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the literature
and a complete collection of writings.
Hajj the annual pilgrimage to Mecca; one
of the Five Pillars
Id al-Fitr The 3 day holiday celebrating
the end of the Ramadan fast; the festival
traditionally begins following the sighting of
the new moon.
Ijma the consensus of religio-legal scholars
used as a principle for extending application of Islamic Law. It is meant to ensure
the continued authenticity and truth of the three other sources of law. Encourages
an active exchange of ideas among the scholars of the various schools; remaining the
final arbiter of truth and error, expressed in the Prophets declaration that my
community will not agree on an error.
Imamis (Twelvers’) Shiis who recognize twelve imams as legitimate heirs to the
Prophets authority; the last, in occultation (disappeared from view) since 874, is
expected to return some day as the Mahdi (rightly guided one who will emerge
from hiding at some future time to restore righteousness and order to the world)
Qiblah The direction of prayer, marked in mosques by a
niche inside the wall nearest Mecca. Originally, the direction
of which the Salat was to be done was in the direction of
Jerusalem in reference to the heavenly journey Muhammad
experienced; later, it was changed to the direction of Mecca in
reference to the last pilgrimage Muhammad took to the Kabbah.
www.notesolution.com
Shahadah The Muslim profession of faith in God as the only god and in
Muhammad as Gods prophet. Declaring ones faith, bearing witness as a Muslim.
Shaykh The Arabic term for a senior master, especially in the context of Sufism.
Shiis Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority through imams in
the lineage of Ali; the smaller of the two main divisions of Islam, accounting for
about 1/6 of all Muslims today
Sunnah the life-example of Muhammads words and deeds (anecdotes), based
mainly on the Hadith literature; the primary source of guidance for Muslims.
Sunnis Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority through the
caliphate, which lasted until the 20th century; the larger of
the two main divisions of Islam, accounting for
about 5/6 of all Muslims today.
Surah A chapter of the Quran. There are 114 in
total, arranged in decreasing order of length, apart
from the first on, the Fatihah.
Ummah The Muslim community (nation); a society
united by faith.
Zakat the prescribed welfare tax (2.5% of each Muslims
accumulated wealth) collected by central treasuries in earlier times but
now donated to charities independently of state governments.
Islam
Islam submission in Arabic; signifies the commitment of its adherents to
live in total submission to God
Muslim a person who submits to God
www.notesolution.com
Islam is proclaimed to be the universal + primordial faith of all the prophets
from Adam Muhammad + to all those who have faith in the monotheistic
God
All things, plants, animals and even inanimate objects are Muslims to God by
nature; only human Islam is an Islam of choice.
The Pre-Islamic Context
Before Islam emerged in the 7th century, Jewish, Christian (Byzantine
Empire) and Zoroastrian communities existed throughout the Arabian
peninsula as well as polytheistic traditions
oNo key group help solidified power which gave room for a political-
social tradition to emerge (Islam)
The city of Mecca was open to a broad range of culture and religious
influences, the majority of it stemming from polytheistic roots
The Kaba (believed to have been built by Abraham and his son Ishmael) was
a place of worship for the many gods and goddess of the polytheistic
practitioners
Insider-look: “counterpoint as Islam diverts from the pre-Islamic traditions
oThere is a difference from the past
oClear distinction “counter point
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Dhikr Remembering Gods name; chanted in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while devotees dance in a circle. Hadith The body of texts reporting Muhammads sayings and early followers of Islam, taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine; a hadith is an individual unit of the literature and a complete collection of writings. Hajj the annual pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the Five Pillars Id al-Fitr The 3 day holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast; the festival traditionally begins following the sighting of the new moon. Ijma the consensus of religio-legal scholars used as a principle for extending application of Islamic Law. It is meant to ensure the continued authenticity and truth of the three other sources of lawEncourages an active exchange of ideas among the scholars of the various schools; remaining the final arbiter of truth and error, expressed in the Prophets declaration that my community will not agree on an error. Imamis (Twelvers) Shiis who recognize twelve imams as legitimate heirs to the Prophets authority; the last, in occultation (disappeared from view) since 874, is expected to return some day as the Mahdi (rightly guided one who will emerge from hiding at some future time to restore righteousness and order to the world) Qiblah The direction of prayer, marked in mosques by a niche inside the wall nearestecca. Originally, the direction of which the Salat was to be done was in the direction of Jerusalem in reference to the heavenly journey Muhammad experienced; later, it was changed to the direction of Mecca in reference to the last pilgrimage Muhammad took to the Kabbah. www.notesolution.comShahadah The Muslim profession of faith in God as the only god and in Muhammad as Gods prophet. Declaring ones faith, bearing witness as a Muslim. Shaykh The Arabic term for a senior master, especially in the context of Sufism. Shiis Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority through imams in the lineage of Ali; the smaller of the two main divisions of Islam, accounting for about 16 of all Muslims today Sunnah the life-example of Muhammads words and deeds (anecdotes), based mainly on the Hadith literature; the primary source of guidance for Muslims. Sunnis Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority through the caliphate, which lasted until the 20 century; the larger of the two main divisions of Islam, accounting for about 56 of all Muslims today. Surah A chapter of the Quran. There are 114 in total, arranged in decreasing order of length, apart from the first on, the Fatihah. Ummah The Muslim community (nation); a society united by faith. Zakat the prescribed welfare tax (2.5% of each Muslims accumulated wealth) collected by central treasuries in earlier times but now donated to charities independently of state governments. Islam Islam submission in Arabic; signifies the commitment of its adherents to live in total submission to God Muslim a person who submits to God www.notesolution.com
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