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Mc Kinon
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Nations policies toward Native Americans: separation of Indian children from their
families and cultures
To civilize these children into the dominant society
Started in 1879, peaked around 1879-1930; Native American children were forced to
attend boarding schools, day schools, and schools in converted army posts; these
institutions used tactics similar to those used by military to resocialize these
Crow Dog describes these children as victims of Nazi concentration camps
Even now, when buildings are new with well trained teachers, some children who
arrive dont speak for days while others go to very drastic measures such as suicide
The children of the Natives are always surrounded by relative, are seldom forced to
do anything against their will, are seldom screamed at or beaten therefore, when
they enter these schools, they experience a completely different environment
The schools consist of impersonality instead of close human contact; a sterile, cold
atmosphere, unfamiliar routine, language problems, and above all, the clock (which
is a white mans time, not Indian time)
The schools were intended as an alternative to the outright extermination seriously
advocated by generals Sherman and Sheridan they were established by the so-
called do-gooders
The Indian children realized that they were not wanted by the Indians, nor wanted
by the Whites as a result, they became alcoholics
Solving the Indian Problem: by making Indians into whites
St. Francis a Christian boarding school for the Indians; although the school is now
run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, during the 1960s, it was still run by the Church
at these schools, children were beaten, treated harshly, given inadequate food,
were not allowed to meet with their families, except for one week a year, and were
forced to pray in the Christian way, as opposed to the Indian way
Beating was the common punishment for not doing homework, for arriving late, etc

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According to Crow Dog, the Native children were treated so badly that she hated and
mistrusted every white person until much later when she met sincere white people
she claims that racism breeds racism in reverse
In winter, dorm rooms were freezing cold, whereas the nun rooms were warm; the
children had to eat old food with bugs and rocks in it sometimes, while the nuns
enjoyed the finest foods
When the girls first arrived at the schools, their braids were chopped off and they
were dumped into tubs of rubbing alcohol to get the germs off
Many of the nuns were German immigrants from Bavaria
Crow Dog and two of her friends put together a newspaper called the Red Panther, in
which they exposed the reality of the schools they distributed to the newspaper as
much as they could
Girls who were near-white were given preference the nuns perceived them as
coming from good families they were treated better, given better food, and given
better tasks
APARTHEID Jonathan Kozol
1954: U.S. Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education made it a federal
crime for institution of education to segregate children based on race in public
schools was an attempt to challenge racial and class inequality
Schools that were already deeply segregated twenty-fine-thirty years ago are no less
segregated now, whereas schools that were voluntarily or forcefully integrated have
been rapidly resegregating since
2002-2003: 87% of public-school enrolment was Black or Hispanic in Chicago; in
Washington, 94% of children were Black/Hispanics with less than 5% White; similar
patterns were noted in other states
Most of these areas are racially mixed areas; therefore, it is apparent that the racial
segregation of children is a conscious decision of parents
For example, in Seattle neighbourhood where 50% of residents are Caucasian, 95% of
students at the neighbourhood elementary school were Black the Caucasians chose
to send their children to schools that were predominantly white

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Establishment of the school Martin Luther King Jr. in an attempt to reduce racial
segregation; was built in an upper-middle-class white neighbourhood however,
children found at this school are Black or Hispanic students who could not obtain
admission to more successful schools
The reality of racial segregation has been sweetened by surrogate vocabularies, such
as words like diversity and rich variations of ethnic backgrounds when this so-
called diversity is studied within schools, statistics show that more than 95% of the
student population is Black or Hispanic
The students recognize the racial segregation of areas and school that is intact and
are more willing to discuss it than their elders
The promises of Brown are being set aside implicitly, by mediating an uncontested
separation between Black children and White children
In South Bronx, where the majority of the population is Black/Hispanic, schools have
experienced a downfall since the time they were attended by mostly white children
there are no playgrounds or indoor gyms, hardly any libraries in schools, and hardly
any art and music programs; also in the city in 1970, when the population was
predominantly white, there were 400 doctors in these schools however, in 1993,
when population was predominantly black, the number of doctors was 23
Political leaders in New York tend to point to the economic shift and downfall in
budget as the reason for this however, if this is the case, then these conditions
should be found in all parts of New York, not just New York City, where
concentration of Black and Hispanic students is the greatest
For example, in 1997-98, at New York City public schools, $8000 was spent annually
on each student; $12,000 in the typical white suburb, and $18,000 in the wealthiest
suburbs although up until now, these costs have rose, the differences between
these areas remain the same
Also, in the U.S., children from poorer homes are unable to receive prekindergarten
education; on the other hand, children from the middle class or upper-middle class
receive approximately 2-4 years of preschool education; this results in a difference
between the academic ability of students from poorer homes and students from
richer homes; when in 3rd grade, students are given the same standard test to
evaluate whether they can progress to further grades; obviously, the children with
preschool education performed much more well
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