SOCA01 EXAM NOTES
Chapter 6: Groups and Organizations
Social forms - basic elements of social structure that include groups, networks, communities, and
Georg Simmel “social interactions and social forms – the essential features of groups and
organizations – as the basic subject matter of sociology”
o Simmel and Toennies: If you want to know about formal sociology you need to know two
things: form and purpose
Dyad – any interaction which includes two nodes; whenever two units interact it forms a dyad
Based on essential equality
Highly invested in interaction (two people)
Triad – completely different from dyad
You’ve open the door for power
With three people, if only two people (alliance) agree, the third person does not matter
Triads introduce power into social interaction
Robert Bales (T-groups) revealed that each group produced 3 social forms: a task leader; an
emotional leader; a joker. All three roles are equally important for success.
Teams, Bands, and Gangs (TBGs)
Tepperman says that that teams, bands, and gangs are different because members are not born into
them, each of them has their own set of goals and main activities, and TBGs work according to certain
2. According to Tepperman, teams, bands and gangs are different from other social groups insofar that:
a) they are not primary groups
b) membership in them is a matter of choice
c) their members join because they wish to be members of the group, rather than using membership to
pursue another goal
d) they function according to unwritten rules
e) a, b and c
The study of social organization
The study of social organization touches on two main questions: (1) how do people typically act in social
groupings of the different size and purpose? (2) How could we organize social groupings to increase the
chances that people will achieve their collective goals?
unconnected people in categories (say Canadian 19 year olds), have no social structure of interest. 2
Social structure – the invisible feature of social life that controls and transforms our behaviour – that is
mainly of interest to sociologists.
They become sociologically interesting when people dramatize (or socially construct) meanings for
differences between one category and another.
Networks – also social networks, sets of nods (individuals, groups or people, organizations) connected
by ties across which social and material resources are exchanged.
Direct connections – kinship, friendship, and acquaintance
Indirect connections – of interest to sociologists
Mark Granovetter (1974) argued that weakly tied networks based largely on indirect links, may
be even more useful than strongly tied or completely connected networks. Information, social support,
and other valuable resources flow through incompletely connected, or weakly tied, networks.
Lack a sense of collective identity such as a community would have. Lack an awareness of their
membership and its characteristics, such as a group would have. Third, people in networks lack a
collective goal, such as an organization would have.
Gemeinschaft is community.
Small (Tepperman: rural) socially and culturally homogenous, practices informal social control
Gesellschaft is society.
Large (Tepperman: urban), socially and culturally heterogeneous, formal social control
With which of the following statements would Ferdinand Tonnies (1957 ) NOT agree?
a) Rural and small-town life is characterized by Gemeinschaft, which includes a stable, homogenous
group of residents with a strong attachment to one particular place.
b) City life is characterized by friendship, neighbouring, and working together.
c) Gemeinschaft is marked by dense or highly connected networks, centralized and controlling elites,
and multiple social ties.
d) City life is characterized by Gesellschaft, which includes a diverse group of residents where people
have impersonal, brief relationships and share few moral values.
e) In cities, people’s social networks are less connected and less centralized.
Members are aware of membership
Members are all connected with one another (directly, or indirectly)
Members communicate, interact, and conduct exchanges with one another
More highly connected than a category, and more self-aware than a network
Primary Groups are small and marked by regular face-to-face interaction e.g. family household; People
identify closely with the group and with one another; find it hard to leave or betray group
1. Small, face to face interaction
2. Subjectively important to members
3. Longer duration
4. Informal groups have no written rules; 3
5. Family household
Secondary groups are larger, and many members may not interact with one another regularly. However,
even in secondary groups there is clear membership.
1. Larger (could be small)
2. Many members who do not interact with one another regularly
3. Clear membership
4. formal groups have written rules
5. bind people in fairly stable patterns of social interaction
6. organizations are subtypes of secondary groups
Secondary groups that have collective goal or purpose
Comprises a group of people working together, co-ordinated by communication and leadership to
achieve a common goal or goals
May come together spontaneously or deliberately
Division of labour may be crude or complex
Leadership/communication may be informal or formal
One specific goal or variously loosely related goals
Spontaneous organization arises quickly to meet a single goal and then is disbanded when the goal is
achieved (bucket brigades/search parties)
Leaders emerge informally, without planning, crude division of labour, each disappears when
the job is completed
Informal organizations have unstated goals and/or little division of labour
Clique pump themselves up and ridicule others; group of tightly interconnected people; members spend
more time with one another than with non-clique members, share their knowledge with one another,
and think and behave similarly.
Built on friendship and the exclusion of outsiders; amass power and resources; they receive,
censor, and direct information flow. They produce information, distort it, and send it our as gossip and
Stable structures; surviving on Groupthink (Irving Janis)
Organizations are formal if they are deliberately planned and organized.
Formal organizations are deliberated planned social groups that co-ordinates people, capital, and tools
through formal roles, statuses, and relationships to gain a specific set of goals. 4
The most successful form of organization is bureaucracy. They thrice in both the public and the private
sector and in both capitalist and socialist societies; they are efficient and effective
7 characteristics of bureaucracy:
1. division of labour – automotive assembly line (one task for employee; separated from means
2. hierarchy of positions – each person is responsible to a specific person one level up the
pyramid, and for a specific group of people one level down
3. formal system of rules – rules allow a bureaucracy to formalize and classify the countless
circumstances it routinely confronts.
4. reliance on written documents -
5. separation of the person from the office – relations between positions in a bureaucracy are
impersonal relations between roles, not personal relations between people.
6. hiring and promotion based on merit – ideally hires employees impartially.
7. protection of careers – people are not subject to arbitrary dismissal for personal reasons
1. Large, impersonal organization
a. People take positions in a bureaucracy based on impersonal rules.
2. Set of positions
a. Based on a division of labour
b. Arranged in hierarchal formation
i. Information flows up, and power goes down
c. Hired and promoted on basis of expertise
3. Historical origin
4. Clientelism (hire someone that you know, and can depend on them to) and nepotism (hiring your
Problems with bureaucracy
1. "iron cage of bureaucracy" - excessive impersonality and formality
2. Goal Displacement
1. Inability to change
Informal organizations in Bureaucracies
Workers humanize the organization; provide support and protection to workers at the lower
levels of the hierarchy; they serve as active channels of information flow (the grapevine).
Chapter 7: Deviance
By illustration - is the typical response of listing types of people or behaviours we think deserve the
In statistical terms - it makes a certain amount of sense to identify deviance by rarity, since many of the
kinds of people we think as deviant are, in a statistical sense, relatively unusual.
As harmful - equating deviate action with action that produces destructive outcomes. 5
Deviance as a Sociological Concept
Sociologists are interested in deviance as a product of social interaction and group structure; that is, we
understand the study of deviance to be the study of people, behaviours and conditions subject to 'social
control' - the myriad ways in which members of social groups express their disapproval of people and
Deviance is non-compliance with social norms that provokes a negative social reaction, and an attempt
to control the behaviour and/or punish the perpetrator
Objective and subjective concepts of deviance: Moral status according thoughts, actions,
characteristics and persons. No action is in itself deviate. It is only deviant if it provokes a
negative social reaction.
Types of Deviance
o Social diversions: harmless non-compliance to social norms; it does not elicit
Piercings, tattoos, purple or pink hair
o Social deviations: non-compliance to social norms that elicits an informal sanction
Legal, but agents of social control (family, friends, community leaders, etc.)
Improper personal hygiene
o Conflict crimes: non-compliance to law; members of society disagree about its
seriousness and the appropriate sanction.
Smoking marijuana, pirating music,
Consensus crimes: most members of society agree on their seriousness
First degree murder?
Is theft a consensus crime?
Is murder a consensus crime?
Theories of Deviance
All theories of deviance answer three questions
1. Why do some people engage in deviance?
i. Structural-functionalist theories: strain, cultural support and differential
ii. Symbolic-interactionist: transactional, labelling
2. Why don't all people engage in deviance?
i. Structural-functionalist: social control
3. How are behaviours defined as deviant?
i. Structural-functionalist: conservative control theory
ii. Neo-Marxist: Radical control theory
iii. Post-modernist: discourse as means of social control - normalized by the
powerful; minority views are unheard
Questions to guide the reading/to think about ahead of time for students 6
Compare commonsensical definitions of deviance to its sociological definition.
What explains acceptance of social constructs of “Internet predator" and “Satanic crime”
in some countries, but not in others?
Summarize methodological problems of research into deviance.
Understand main sociological theories of deviance. Understand that they answer three
different kinds of questions.
1. Causes and forms of deviate behaviour
2. Content and character of moral definitions
3. Issues that arise over deviate labels
Strain theory - derived from Merton; theory that deviance results when people experience a
gap between their aspirations and their opportunities. There is little recognition of class
barriers and everyone is encouraged to pursue the same goal of material success and
everyone is judged on success of failure based on the ability to become materially successful.
Merton didn't account for middle- and upper-class crime and deviance
Assumed the accuracy of official stats
Cloward and Ohlin argued there is a need to explain why different kinds of delinquent
behaviour emerge in different types of neighbourhoods. The types of delinquency
1. The criminal pattern characterized by instrumental delinquency activities,
particularly that for gain, in which those involved seek to generate illegal profits
2. The conflict pattern characterized by the presence of 'fighting gangs' who batter
over turf and boundaries
3. The retreatist pattern organized around the acquisition and use of hard drugs.
Strain Theory - Robert Merton
Lack of fit between the accepted cultural goals and socially acceptable means available to
achieve these goals
This strain creates four types of coping strategies:
Innovation (crime), ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.
Merton's Typology of Coping Strategies on page 158
Critique: fails to account for middle- and upper-class crime and deviance
Conformity - no issues in acceptance of goals and means
Innovation - accepts the goals but rejects the means
Ritualism - rejects cultural goals but accepts socially acceptable means.
Retreatism - rejects both central cultural goal of wealth and socially acceptable means of
People who live in religious orders; drug addicts; 7
Rebellion - accept/reject cultural goals and accept/reject societal acceptable means
Cultural support (subcultural) theory - an explanation of deviance that emphasizes an
understanding of how deviant values lead to deviant behaviours; focuses on the way patterns of
cultural beliefs create and sustain deviant conduct.
Edward Sutherland proposed that people become deviant because they have been exposed
to learning experiences that make deviance more likely.
People end up deviant in the same way people end up as Catholics, stamp collectors,
saxophone players - that is, as a result of exposure to influential learning experiences.
Sutherland, learning to accept or to value criminal or deviant action in a very real sense
makes such action possible.
Help us to understand how people come to value actions the rest of society despise.
Maxim and Whitehead argue that the use of culture to explain deviance is tautological
(Repetition of same sense in different words).
Cultural Support Theory - Sutherland
People become deviant because they are exposed to learning experiences that make deviance
more likely, i.e. to a subculture of deviance.
Rationalisations: deviant people learn to believe that their behaviour is morally acceptable.
Knezevic: a weak critique: tautological (values are inferred from behaviour, behaviour is
explained by values)
Differential association theory: stronger association with deviant than to norm-abiding persons
leads to higher likelihood of deviance.
Control theory - argues that most types of deviant behaviour do not require a sophisticated
form of explanation; a category of explanation that maintains that people engage in deviant
behaviour when the various controls that might be expected to prohibit them from doing so are
weak or absent
Durkheim suggested that the crucial variable in suicide rates might be social regulation
or Social Control that forces people to take others into account and discourages
behaviours that are excessively individualistic.
Suicide is more likely when people are disconnected from social regulation and left to
their own resources.
Hirschi attempted to use social control logic to explain conduct of youthful offenders.
Each of us, to a greater or lesser degree, has a connection to the world of conventional
others. For youth, the world of conventional others is represented by parents, teachers.
He reasoned that if youthful bonds to conventional others are strong, youths need to
take these others into account when they act; if the bond is weak, they are free to act in
ways that reflect much narrower self-interest.
Gottfredson and Hirschi proposed that crimes of all types tend to be committed by
people who are impulsive, short-sighted, non-verbal risk-takers. 8
Social control theories remain very influential, but they can be criticized for rendering
motivation irrelevant to the study of crime and deviance and for inadequately explaining
why people with strong bonds to the conventional world also engage in prohibited acts.
Social Control Theory - Hirschi
Deviance occurs because people have opportunities to deviate and they find such
Those who have weak social bonds (i.e. are subject to insufficient informal social control)
and low self-control deviate.
Durkheim: No behaviour is in itself. Deviance is normal and socially functional: social
reaction to deviance increases social solidarity. (occurs in all societies)
People in all communities consider suicide. Those in communities with efficient social
control decide against it
Transactional Theory of Deviance - Luckenbill
Strain, cultural support and control theories focus on stable (social) characteristics of
individuals when explaining deviant behaviour.
Luckenbill disagreed with social-functionalist views because they focus on stable and
Six stages of murder:
1. the transaction starts when the eventual victim does something that the eventual offender
could define as an insult
2. the offender defines what the victim has said or done as threatening or offensive
3. the offender makes a countermove intended to respond and save face
4. the victim responds in an aggressive manner
5. a brief violent exchange occurs; it may involve a fatal blow, stab, or gunshot.
6. the battle is over; the offender flees or stays
Murder is the result of situations in which people feel offended and turn to violence.
Knezevic: critique: explains only unpremeditated interpersonal violence
Social Construction of Deviance
Actions are not inherently deviant. They are defined as such by those with the power to label
Definitions of deviance vary across time and space:
Murder - war - infanticide
Homosexuality (v Laud Humphreys, George Michael, Little Sisters Book and Art
Publicizing the problematic behaviour of others (defining behaviour as deviant)
Shaping a particular view of the problem (e.g. criminal or medical);
Building consensus around new moral categories (who is to blame?) 9
- they make claims about deviance because they have an interest in them
Claims may be ideological
Structural interest in defining new forms of behaviour as deviant because it gives
them more scope for their action and power.
Conflict Theory of Deviance
Explains social construction of deviance
Conservative: various social groups make claims about deviance in pursuit of their
interests. None has advantage over claims of others
Comes from political science. Pluralist theory or politics.
Radical: social construction of deviance reflects economic realities of capitalism, including
The dominant class constructs its own activities as normal (e.g. cut-throat competition)
and subordinate class's activities as deviant (e.g. strikes, petty property crime).
Movement for decriminalisation of marijuana consumption
Comstock Laws (1873) on pornography in the USA
White collar crime - is what people who have power in corporations do in course of their
NAMBLA - North American Man/Boy Love Association;
Symbolic interactionist theory of deviance.
Deviant label becomes a person's master status and causes deviancy amplification, i.e.
People labelled deviant engage in secondary deviance because their non-deviant
Knezevic: cause: deviant label closes off non-deviant opportunities (e.g. employment)
How do gender, age, class and ethnicity influence a person’s likelihood of engaging in crime or
being victimized by it?
GENDER: males are more likely to be involved in behaviours that most members of
Canadian society would disapprove of. Males are more likely to be involved in
criminal behaviour. Crime remains a male-dominated activity. Sociologists assumed
that female deviant behaviour could be explained using the same theoretical ideas
and models that have been used for men, but feminists do not agree.
AGE: crime rates are greatest during the late teens and early adulthood and decline
very sharply after that. This patterned did not apply to all kinds of crime. Suicide
rates are lower among younger Canadians.
CLASS AND ETHNICITY: poorer people and people from minority groups are more
likely to be involved in many forms of crime and delinquency, use of drugs and
alcohol, and develop various kinds of mental illness. 10
Why is there so much deviance in the mass media? What are its effects on society?
Publicizing the problematic behaviour of others (defining behaviour as deviant)
Shaping a particular view of the problem (e.g. criminal or medical);
Building consensus around new moral categories (who is to blame?)
What are claims?
Claims are the actual message content that conveys a moral vision of deviance and non-
The study of claims is the study of rhetoric communication, because communication
Deviance are ways of thinking, acting and being that are subject to social control - in other
words, as kinds of conditions and kinds of people tat are viewed by most of the members of a
society are wrong, immoral, disreputable, bizarre or unusual.
Has two distinct yet related dimensions:
1. Objective refers to the behaviour or condition itself
2. Subjective refers to the placement of that condition by members of society in
their system of moral stratification.
SCP Chapter 15 & HSW Chapter 4: Work and the economy
Table 4.1 Comparison Between Two Different Class Societies
Slow social change Constant and rapid social change
Simply commodity production: Capitalist commodity production:
limited production for exchange Everything is a potential commodity
Workers retain some ownership or Workers separated from ownership or
control of some means of production Control of the means of production
Limits to the appropriation of surplus No limits to the appropriation of surplus
Surplus appropriated primarily via extra- Surplus appropriated primarily via
Economic forms of coercion economic forms of coercion
Property and class relations a matter of Property and class relations a matter of legal
Economic and political power identical Economic and political power separated
(although intertwined) 11
Feudalism A socioeconomic formation that grew out of the ruins of the old slave societies in the
Middle Ages, which centred on duties and obligations between individuals. The
major classes were the appropriating class, the aristocracy, and the producing class of
peasants, or serfs.
Market People offering goods and services for sale to others in a more or less systematic and
organized way. The concept of the market embodies not simply a physical place but
rather a set of social relationships organized around the buying and selling of objects.
Commodity Any object that is exchanged in the marketplace
Capital Money invested with the purpose of increasing its value
Petite bourgeoisie The class that owns some means of production, but not a sufficient amount to survive
by ownership alone. This class included small-business people, farmers, fishers, and
Labour power The sum total of a worker's physical and mental capacities that go into a particular
Surplus value That which is created by the unpaid labour of workers. In Marxist analysis, the
production of surplus value and its appropriation by capitalists is the motive force of
the capitalist mode of production.
Monopolization An economic situation where there are so few companies in a given industry that
free-enterprise competition no longer effectively exists. There is a high degree of
monopolization in the current world economy.
Concentration and An inevitable process in capitalism, it is the coming together of small aggregates of
centralization of capital to form huge enterprises located in a few centres around the globe.
Anarchy of In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of capitalist production, with each
production individual productive unit making production decisions on the basis of maximizing
profit. For this reason, production cannot be planned, which leads inevitably to the
crisis of overproduction.
Crisis of In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of the anarchy of production in all
overproduction capitalist societies. As individual productive units compete in the marketplace in an
attempt to maximize profits, there will ultimately overproduction of goods. Capital
tries to solve the problem in a variety of ways, but the crisis keeps recurring.
Financialization The tendency of advanced capitalist economies to become dominated by the financial
Laissez-faire An early stage of capitalism, when free enterprise still dominated, there were many
capitalism small or medium-sized productive units, and there was a minimum state intervention
to control the worst excesses of capital.
Welfare state A form of capitalism in which governments played an increasing role in economic
affairs, the public sector and social safety net expanded, and there was general 12
economic prosperity for large numbers of working people. Most developed capitalist
economies developed this form following World War II until the 1970s.
Imperialism The global stage of capitalism in which large monopolies come to control the
economy, and capital - rather than commodities - becomes the primary export.
Transnational Large capitalist monopolies, national in their capital, but international in the sphere of
corporations economic activity due to the export of capital. Such companies generally conduct at
least 25 percent of their business outside of their own country.
Nation It embodies the notion of a group of people living within a geographical boundary
who share a common language, culture and history.
Capitalism An economic system in which all production is subordinated to the needs of those
who own the productive units.
Economy – a network of organisations and individuals that produce goods and services
necessary to sustain a population – is among the most important social institutions, yet most of
us seldom consider its structure and the relationships of power that it creates. We accept it as
natural and do not question inequalities that it creates. This week we look at the economy and
work and challenge our assumptions about them.
based on private ownership of the means of production (land, raw materials, factories,
Capitalists and workers are involved in relationships of unequal, legally free, but
economically coercive exchange (capitalists control the means of production, workers
have no choice but to see their labour).
Workers are paid as little as possibleand capitalists try to extract thmost amount of
work possible in a working day.
Do capitalists buy and workers sell contractually specified labour or labour power ( a
worker's total capacity for labour)?
Dominant ideology denies that employees care about their work (only owners care).
Goal of production: maximizing profits (surplus value) , not producing use value.
Domination of market and money as means of distribution.
Dominant form of organizing production in capitalism; enabled the establishment of
capitalism in the end of the feudalism era
Use of new forms of energy: water, stream, internal combustion, nuclear ("manufactory
production" uses only human and animal energy).
Large-scale (mass) production
Increasingly detailed division of labour, therefore increasing use of unqualified, cheap
labour: women and children 13
Increasing productivity of labour : the amount of goods a worker produces in a unit of
Productivity of work
Early / family capitalism
Sugiman: (SCP) family capitalism
Naiman: (HSW) free enterprise/laissez-faire capitalism (state intervention limits the
activity of enterprises only minimally).
o An early stage of capitalism, when free enterprise still dominated, there were many
small or medium-sized productive units, and there was a minimum state intervention
to control the worst excesses of capital.
A large number of small to medium firms compete in a market
No buyer or seller can significantly influence prices by withdrawing from the market
"Honesty is the best policy."
This phrase is only true in early capitalism and only true because the market is so
o Industrial espionage - trying to learn others' trade secrets
Attempts to maximize profit cause anarchy of production, which causes periodic crisis of
o Anarchy of production - In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of
capitalist production, with each individual productive unit making production
decisions on the basis of maximizing profit. For this reason, production cannot be
planned, which leads inevitably to the crisis of overproduction.
Crisis of hyper-production - In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of
the anarchy of production in all capitalist societies. As individual productive units
compete in the marketplace in an attempt to maximize profits, there will ultimately
overproduction of goods. Capital tries to solve the problem in a variety of ways, but
the crisis keeps recurring.
Free enterprise capitalism inevitable leads tconcentration of ownership
Crises of hyperproduction
Concentration of ownership
Corporate / monopoly capitalism
Naiman: monopoly Capitalism - Prof does not like it.
A corporation is alegal entity (Naiman: legal fiction) distinct from the people who one or
control it. Invented foprotection of owners from poor economic performance.
Concentration of ownership continues: increased size and decreased number of
Comes because of concentration of ownership
Monopoly: a sole seller of a commodity in a market
Oligopoly: several sellers of a commodity in a market; correctly described the market in
most societies. 14
Monopsony: a sole buyer of a commodity in a market
Oligopsony: several buyers of a commodity in a market
Monopoly rent: increased price an enterprise can charge because of its monopolistic
Transnational corporations (TNCs): force a"race to the bottom" in a globalized
Sectors of the economy:
Primary: resource industry
Usually high proportion of the primary sector in Canada.
o Disadvantages: Primary sector in the economy is limited; Can be unstable
Branch factories are numerous in Canadian manufacturing; owned by American
companies, which makes it unstable.
Canada became a post-industrial society in the early 1980s: more than 50% of the labour
force is employed in services
Social reproduction: unpaid household work (remember Marxist feminists).
Work in Post-industrial Society
Daniel Bell, 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: technology will eliminate
repetitive and hard work, and increase highly-skilled, knowledge-based work.
In the past several decades, there has beenpolarisation of the service sector into high-
skilled "knowledge" jobs, and low-skilled jobs in the "hamburger" economy
Both groups are growing , but thenumber of low-skilled jobs is much higher
Ungar: Knowledge economy results inignorance society.
Knowledge economy: depends on your ability to create knowledge;
Knowledge is information which has been integrated and fully understood into your
Technology and the Service Industry
Information technology is used to reorganize work and improve a firm's productivity and
Management often uses computers to control employees and increase intensity of work;
o To increase productivity you are working smarter
o To increase intensity of work you are not taking a break, you are working harder
Telecommunication enables the globalization of work; enables the company from areas of
high labour costs to areas of low labour costs; thus depressing the labour costs in countries
like Canada 15
Productivity paradox: overall productivity in Canada has been growing more slowly after
implementation of computer technology in the 1970s than before.
Quality of Work
Measure quality of work by measuring two kinds of rewards:
Extrinsic rewards: high wages, benefits, employment security, and opportunities for
Intrinsic rewards: challenging non-repetitive work, decision-making, and autonomy (self-
direction and responsibility over work tasks).
Sugiman: Most people "find meaning" in work.
Routine service, white-collar work:
White Collar Holler by Stan Rogers - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsDkmVo2fg4
Flexibility comes in two forms:
Numerical flexibility: shrinking or eliminating the core workforce (the permanent workforce in
a company) and replacing it with workers in non-standard; minimizes cost of labour in an
economic downturn; workers are at a heighten risk of crisis, rather than the company;
Non-standard work: temporary, contractual (self-employed), part-time, and part-year.
Most non-standard work is inflexiblefrom the perspective of the worker, with low pay, no
benefits, no security, no opportunity for advancement.
Non-standard workers may not be the cheapest, but they are easiest to control (Hydro One)
The fastest growing type of employment on Canada
Task flexibility: employees are transferred to different activities within a firm; employees are
not fired and hired again;
Human resources management
Total quality control
Labour market shelters:
The Corporation: Are Corporations Sociopathic?
Callous unconcern for the feelings of others
Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and
Incapacity to maintain healthy relationships
Deceitfulness: repeatedly lying for economic gain 16
Incapacity to experience guilt
Failure to conform to social norms with respect to behaviour
SCP Chapter 8 & HSW Chapter 6: Class and Stratification
Class and status - class, also termed socio-economic class, refers to one's position within a
society's economic hierarchy. Typical designations include upper, middle and lower class. Finer
discriminations, such as upper middle class, also appear in the literature. In contrast, status refers
to one's social position in terms of privilege and esteem. While often based in economic
considerations, status suggests a broader lifestyle dimension. Status may be achieved (becoming
a CEO) or ascribed (born an 'untouchable').
Power - in the classic formulation, power refers to the ability to exercise one's will, even in the
face of opposition from others. In Marxist sociology, a social relationship that has a material
base. Those who own the means of production have the power to exploit workers through the
appropriation of their labour efforts. In Weberian sociology, power is more broadly defined and
can reflect an individual's or group's capacity to exert their will over others. Contemporary
analysts point out that power may also involve a wide variety of indirect and subtle
manifestations, including the ability to mobilize bias or define a situation in one's own interests.
Economic elite - refers to men and women who hold economic power in society. Contemporary
researchers often operationalize this concept in terms of reported financial assets (wealth) and/or
leadership positions on the boards of key (largest 100) corporations.
Intersectionalities - recent analysts, particularly those working from a feminist perspective,
have called attention to the ways in which social inequalities are interwoven in a complex
fashion. Gender inequalities, for example, are influenced by social class, disability, sexual
orientation, race, ethnicity, age and immigrant status.
Social stratification - The condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group;
the structured patterns of inequality that often appear in societal arrangements. From a
macrosociological perspective, it is possible to discern the hierarchical strata of social classes
that characterize most contemporary societies.
Meritocracy - this form of social stratification relies on differences in effort and ability rather
than ascribed statuses such as gender, age or race.
Bourgeoisie - the owning class
Proletariat - the working class
Means of production - their access to tools, factories, land and investment capital used to
Class consciousness - the sense of membership in a social class. For Marx, the working class
would eventually recognize their common interests and act in concert to overthrow capitalism. 17
Conspicuous consumption - the purchasing of goods and services primarily for the purpose of
putting wealth on display.
Highlighted the symbolic embodiment of social inequality through the practice of conspicuous
consumption and in his contention that most people want to ap