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Complete Final Exam Notes

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Ivanka Knezevic

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1 SOCA01 EXAM NOTES Chapter 6: Groups and Organizations Social forms - basic elements of social structure that include groups, networks, communities, and organizations Georg Simmel “social interactions and social forms – the essential features of groups and organizations – as the basic subject matter of sociology” o Simmel and Toennies: If you want to know about formal sociology you need to know two things: form and purpose Dyad – any interaction which includes two nodes; whenever two units interact it forms a dyad  Based on essential equality  Highly invested in interaction (two people) Triad – completely different from dyad  Unequal  You’ve open the door for power  With three people, if only two people (alliance) agree, the third person does not matter Triads introduce power into social interaction Robert Bales (T-groups) revealed that each group produced 3 social forms: a task leader; an emotional leader; a joker. All three roles are equally important for success. Teams, Bands, and Gangs (TBGs) Tepperman says that that teams, bands, and gangs are different because members are not born into them, each of them has their own set of goals and main activities, and TBGs work according to certain unwritten rules. 2. According to Tepperman, teams, bands and gangs are different from other social groups insofar that: a) they are not primary groups b) membership in them is a matter of choice c) their members join because they wish to be members of the group, rather than using membership to pursue another goal d) they function according to unwritten rules e) a, b and c The study of social organization The study of social organization touches on two main questions: (1) how do people typically act in social groupings of the different size and purpose? (2) How could we organize social groupings to increase the chances that people will achieve their collective goals? Categories unconnected people in categories (say Canadian 19 year olds), have no social structure of interest. 2 Social structure – the invisible feature of social life that controls and transforms our behaviour – that is mainly of interest to sociologists. They become sociologically interesting when people dramatize (or socially construct) meanings for differences between one category and another. Networks – also social networks, sets of nods (individuals, groups or people, organizations) connected by ties across which social and material resources are exchanged. Direct connections – kinship, friendship, and acquaintance Indirect connections – of interest to sociologists Mark Granovetter (1974) argued that weakly tied networks based largely on indirect links, may be even more useful than strongly tied or completely connected networks. Information, social support, and other valuable resources flow through incompletely connected, or weakly tied, networks. Lack a sense of collective identity such as a community would have. Lack an awareness of their membership and its characteristics, such as a group would have. Third, people in networks lack a collective goal, such as an organization would have. Communities Gemeinschaft is community. Small (Tepperman: rural) socially and culturally homogenous, practices informal social control Gesellschaft is society. Large (Tepperman: urban), socially and culturally heterogeneous, formal social control With which of the following statements would Ferdinand Tonnies (1957 [1887]) NOT agree? a) Rural and small-town life is characterized by Gemeinschaft, which includes a stable, homogenous group of residents with a strong attachment to one particular place. b) City life is characterized by friendship, neighbouring, and working together. c) Gemeinschaft is marked by dense or highly connected networks, centralized and controlling elites, and multiple social ties. d) City life is characterized by Gesellschaft, which includes a diverse group of residents where people have impersonal, brief relationships and share few moral values. e) In cities, people’s social networks are less connected and less centralized. Groups Members are aware of membership Members are all connected with one another (directly, or indirectly) Members communicate, interact, and conduct exchanges with one another More highly connected than a category, and more self-aware than a network Primary Groups are small and marked by regular face-to-face interaction e.g. family household; People identify closely with the group and with one another; find it hard to leave or betray group 1. Small, face to face interaction 2. Subjectively important to members 3. Longer duration 4. Informal groups have no written rules; 3 5. Family household 6. cliques Secondary groups are larger, and many members may not interact with one another regularly. However, even in secondary groups there is clear membership. 1. Larger (could be small) 2. Many members who do not interact with one another regularly 3. Clear membership 4. formal groups have written rules 5. bind people in fairly stable patterns of social interaction 6. organizations are subtypes of secondary groups Organizations Secondary groups that have collective goal or purpose Comprises a group of people working together, co-ordinated by communication and leadership to achieve a common goal or goals May come together spontaneously or deliberately Division of labour may be crude or complex Leadership/communication may be informal or formal One specific goal or variously loosely related goals Spontaneous organization arises quickly to meet a single goal and then is disbanded when the goal is achieved (bucket brigades/search parties) Leaders emerge informally, without planning, crude division of labour, each disappears when the job is completed Informal organizations have unstated goals and/or little division of labour Clique pump themselves up and ridicule others; group of tightly interconnected people; members spend more time with one another than with non-clique members, share their knowledge with one another, and think and behave similarly. Built on friendship and the exclusion of outsiders; amass power and resources; they receive, censor, and direct information flow. They produce information, distort it, and send it our as gossip and rumours. Stable structures; surviving on Groupthink (Irving Janis) Bureaucracies Formal Organizations Organizations are formal if they are deliberately planned and organized. Formal organizations are deliberated planned social groups that co-ordinates people, capital, and tools through formal roles, statuses, and relationships to gain a specific set of goals. 4 The most successful form of organization is bureaucracy. They thrice in both the public and the private sector and in both capitalist and socialist societies; they are efficient and effective Max Weber: 7 characteristics of bureaucracy: 1. division of labour – automotive assembly line (one task for employee; separated from means of production) 2. hierarchy of positions – each person is responsible to a specific person one level up the pyramid, and for a specific group of people one level down 3. formal system of rules – rules allow a bureaucracy to formalize and classify the countless circumstances it routinely confronts. 4. reliance on written documents - 5. separation of the person from the office – relations between positions in a bureaucracy are impersonal relations between roles, not personal relations between people. 6. hiring and promotion based on merit – ideally hires employees impartially. 7. protection of careers – people are not subject to arbitrary dismissal for personal reasons 1. Large, impersonal organization a. People take positions in a bureaucracy based on impersonal rules. 2. Set of positions a. Based on a division of labour b. Arranged in hierarchal formation i. Information flows up, and power goes down c. Hired and promoted on basis of expertise 3. Historical origin 4. Clientelism (hire someone that you know, and can depend on them to) and nepotism (hiring your family). Problems with bureaucracy Max Weber: 1. "iron cage of bureaucracy" - excessive impersonality and formality 2. Goal Displacement 1. Inability to change 2. Oligarchy Informal organizations in Bureaucracies Workers humanize the organization; provide support and protection to workers at the lower levels of the hierarchy; they serve as active channels of information flow (the grapevine). Chapter 7: Deviance Deviance: By illustration - is the typical response of listing types of people or behaviours we think deserve the label In statistical terms - it makes a certain amount of sense to identify deviance by rarity, since many of the kinds of people we think as deviant are, in a statistical sense, relatively unusual. As harmful - equating deviate action with action that produces destructive outcomes. 5 Deviance as a Sociological Concept Sociologists are interested in deviance as a product of social interaction and group structure; that is, we understand the study of deviance to be the study of people, behaviours and conditions subject to 'social control' - the myriad ways in which members of social groups express their disapproval of people and behaviour. Deviance is non-compliance with social norms that provokes a negative social reaction, and an attempt to control the behaviour and/or punish the perpetrator Objective and subjective concepts of deviance: Moral status according thoughts, actions, characteristics and persons. No action is in itself deviate. It is only deviant if it provokes a negative social reaction. Types of Deviance o Social diversions: harmless non-compliance to social norms; it does not elicit sanctions ('fads')  Piercings, tattoos, purple or pink hair o Social deviations: non-compliance to social norms that elicits an informal sanction  Legal, but agents of social control (family, friends, community leaders, etc.)  Improper personal hygiene o Conflict crimes: non-compliance to law; members of society disagree about its seriousness and the appropriate sanction.  Smoking marijuana, pirating music, o Consensus crimes: most members of society agree on their seriousness  First degree murder?  Rape  Is theft a consensus crime?  Is murder a consensus crime?  Theories of Deviance All theories of deviance answer three questions 1. Why do some people engage in deviance? i. Structural-functionalist theories: strain, cultural support and differential association ii. Symbolic-interactionist: transactional, labelling 2. Why don't all people engage in deviance? i. Structural-functionalist: social control 3. How are behaviours defined as deviant? i. Structural-functionalist: conservative control theory ii. Neo-Marxist: Radical control theory iii. Post-modernist: discourse as means of social control - normalized by the powerful; minority views are unheard Questions to guide the reading/to think about ahead of time for students 6  Compare commonsensical definitions of deviance to its sociological definition. o Above  What explains acceptance of social constructs of “Internet predator" and “Satanic crime” in some countries, but not in others? o diffusion  Summarize methodological problems of research into deviance. o Deception  Understand main sociological theories of deviance. Understand that they answer three different kinds of questions. 1. Causes and forms of deviate behaviour 2. Content and character of moral definitions 3. Issues that arise over deviate labels  Strain theory - derived from Merton; theory that deviance results when people experience a gap between their aspirations and their opportunities. There is little recognition of class barriers and everyone is encouraged to pursue the same goal of material success and everyone is judged on success of failure based on the ability to become materially successful.  Merton didn't account for middle- and upper-class crime and deviance  Assumed the accuracy of official stats  Cloward and Ohlin argued there is a need to explain why different kinds of delinquent behaviour emerge in different types of neighbourhoods. The types of delinquency adaptations: 1. The criminal pattern characterized by instrumental delinquency activities, particularly that for gain, in which those involved seek to generate illegal profits (theft) 2. The conflict pattern characterized by the presence of 'fighting gangs' who batter over turf and boundaries 3. The retreatist pattern organized around the acquisition and use of hard drugs. Strain Theory - Robert Merton Lack of fit between the accepted cultural goals and socially acceptable means available to achieve these goals This strain creates four types of coping strategies: Innovation (crime), ritualism, retreatism and rebellion. Merton's Typology of Coping Strategies on page 158 Critique: fails to account for middle- and upper-class crime and deviance Conformity - no issues in acceptance of goals and means Innovation - accepts the goals but rejects the means Ritualism - rejects cultural goals but accepts socially acceptable means. Retreatism - rejects both central cultural goal of wealth and socially acceptable means of achieving it People who live in religious orders; drug addicts; 7 Rebellion - accept/reject cultural goals and accept/reject societal acceptable means Cultural support (subcultural) theory - an explanation of deviance that emphasizes an understanding of how deviant values lead to deviant behaviours; focuses on the way patterns of cultural beliefs create and sustain deviant conduct.  Edward Sutherland proposed that people become deviant because they have been exposed to learning experiences that make deviance more likely. People end up deviant in the same way people end up as Catholics, stamp collectors,  saxophone players - that is, as a result of exposure to influential learning experiences.  Sutherland, learning to accept or to value criminal or deviant action in a very real sense makes such action possible.  Help us to understand how people come to value actions the rest of society despise.  Maxim and Whitehead argue that the use of culture to explain deviance is tautological (Repetition of same sense in different words). Cultural Support Theory - Sutherland Subcultural theory People become deviant because they are exposed to learning experiences that make deviance more likely, i.e. to a subculture of deviance. Rationalisations: deviant people learn to believe that their behaviour is morally acceptable. Knezevic: a weak critique: tautological (values are inferred from behaviour, behaviour is explained by values) Differential association theory: stronger association with deviant than to norm-abiding persons leads to higher likelihood of deviance. Control theory - argues that most types of deviant behaviour do not require a sophisticated form of explanation; a category of explanation that maintains that people engage in deviant behaviour when the various controls that might be expected to prohibit them from doing so are weak or absent  Durkheim suggested that the crucial variable in suicide rates might be social regulation or Social Control that forces people to take others into account and discourages behaviours that are excessively individualistic.  Suicide is more likely when people are disconnected from social regulation and left to their own resources.  Hirschi attempted to use social control logic to explain conduct of youthful offenders.  Each of us, to a greater or lesser degree, has a connection to the world of conventional others. For youth, the world of conventional others is represented by parents, teachers.  He reasoned that if youthful bonds to conventional others are strong, youths need to take these others into account when they act; if the bond is weak, they are free to act in ways that reflect much narrower self-interest.  Gottfredson and Hirschi proposed that crimes of all types tend to be committed by people who are impulsive, short-sighted, non-verbal risk-takers. 8  Social control theories remain very influential, but they can be criticized for rendering motivation irrelevant to the study of crime and deviance and for inadequately explaining why people with strong bonds to the conventional world also engage in prohibited acts. Social Control Theory - Hirschi Deviance occurs because people have opportunities to deviate and they find such opportunities rewarding. Those who have weak social bonds (i.e. are subject to insufficient informal social control) and low self-control deviate. Durkheim: No behaviour is in itself. Deviance is normal and socially functional: social reaction to deviance increases social solidarity. (occurs in all societies) People in all communities consider suicide. Those in communities with efficient social control decide against it Transactional Theory of Deviance - Luckenbill Strain, cultural support and control theories focus on stable (social) characteristics of individuals when explaining deviant behaviour. Luckenbill disagreed with social-functionalist views because they focus on stable and characteristic individuals Six stages of murder: 1. the transaction starts when the eventual victim does something that the eventual offender could define as an insult 2. the offender defines what the victim has said or done as threatening or offensive 3. the offender makes a countermove intended to respond and save face 4. the victim responds in an aggressive manner 5. a brief violent exchange occurs; it may involve a fatal blow, stab, or gunshot. 6. the battle is over; the offender flees or stays Murder is the result of situations in which people feel offended and turn to violence. Knezevic: critique: explains only unpremeditated interpersonal violence Social Construction of Deviance Actions are not inherently deviant. They are defined as such by those with the power to label others. Definitions of deviance vary across time and space: Murder - war - infanticide Homosexuality (v Laud Humphreys, George Michael, Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium) Claims-making:  Publicizing the problematic behaviour of others (defining behaviour as deviant)  Shaping a particular view of the problem (e.g. criminal or medical);  Building consensus around new moral categories (who is to blame?) 9 Moral Entrepreneurs - they make claims about deviance because they have an interest in them  Claims may be ideological  Structural interest in defining new forms of behaviour as deviant because it gives them more scope for their action and power. Conflict Theory of Deviance Explains social construction of deviance Conservative: various social groups make claims about deviance in pursuit of their interests. None has advantage over claims of others Comes from political science. Pluralist theory or politics. Radical: social construction of deviance reflects economic realities of capitalism, including class exploitation. The dominant class constructs its own activities as normal (e.g. cut-throat competition) and subordinate class's activities as deviant (e.g. strikes, petty property crime). Movement for decriminalisation of marijuana consumption Comstock Laws (1873) on pornography in the USA White collar crime - is what people who have power in corporations do in course of their usual work. NAMBLA - North American Man/Boy Love Association; Labelling Theory Symbolic interactionist theory of deviance. Deviant label becomes a person's master status and causes deviancy amplification, i.e. secondary deviance People labelled deviant engage in secondary deviance because their non-deviant opportunities closes-off Knezevic: cause: deviant label closes off non-deviant opportunities (e.g. employment) How do gender, age, class and ethnicity influence a person’s likelihood of engaging in crime or being victimized by it?  GENDER: males are more likely to be involved in behaviours that most members of Canadian society would disapprove of. Males are more likely to be involved in criminal behaviour. Crime remains a male-dominated activity. Sociologists assumed that female deviant behaviour could be explained using the same theoretical ideas and models that have been used for men, but feminists do not agree.  AGE: crime rates are greatest during the late teens and early adulthood and decline very sharply after that. This patterned did not apply to all kinds of crime. Suicide rates are lower among younger Canadians.  CLASS AND ETHNICITY: poorer people and people from minority groups are more likely to be involved in many forms of crime and delinquency, use of drugs and alcohol, and develop various kinds of mental illness. 10  Why is there so much deviance in the mass media? What are its effects on society? Claims-making:  Publicizing the problematic behaviour of others (defining behaviour as deviant)  Shaping a particular view of the problem (e.g. criminal or medical); Building consensus around new moral categories (who is to blame?) What are claims? Claims are the actual message content that conveys a moral vision of deviance and non- deviance. The study of claims is the study of rhetoric communication, because communication persuades audiences. Deviance are ways of thinking, acting and being that are subject to social control - in other words, as kinds of conditions and kinds of people tat are viewed by most of the members of a society are wrong, immoral, disreputable, bizarre or unusual.  Has two distinct yet related dimensions: 1. Objective refers to the behaviour or condition itself 2. Subjective refers to the placement of that condition by members of society in their system of moral stratification. SCP Chapter 15 & HSW Chapter 4: Work and the economy Table 4.1 Comparison Between Two Different Class Societies Feudalism Capitalism Slow social change Constant and rapid social change Simply commodity production: Capitalist commodity production: limited production for exchange Everything is a potential commodity Workers retain some ownership or Workers separated from ownership or control of some means of production Control of the means of production Limits to the appropriation of surplus No limits to the appropriation of surplus Surplus appropriated primarily via extra- Surplus appropriated primarily via Economic forms of coercion economic forms of coercion Property and class relations a matter of Property and class relations a matter of legal Tradition contracts Economic and political power identical Economic and political power separated (although intertwined) 11 Feudalism A socioeconomic formation that grew out of the ruins of the old slave societies in the Middle Ages, which centred on duties and obligations between individuals. The major classes were the appropriating class, the aristocracy, and the producing class of peasants, or serfs. Market People offering goods and services for sale to others in a more or less systematic and organized way. The concept of the market embodies not simply a physical place but rather a set of social relationships organized around the buying and selling of objects. Commodity Any object that is exchanged in the marketplace Capital Money invested with the purpose of increasing its value Petite bourgeoisie The class that owns some means of production, but not a sufficient amount to survive by ownership alone. This class included small-business people, farmers, fishers, and self-employed professionals. Labour power The sum total of a worker's physical and mental capacities that go into a particular work task. Surplus value That which is created by the unpaid labour of workers. In Marxist analysis, the production of surplus value and its appropriation by capitalists is the motive force of the capitalist mode of production. Monopolization An economic situation where there are so few companies in a given industry that free-enterprise competition no longer effectively exists. There is a high degree of monopolization in the current world economy. Concentration and An inevitable process in capitalism, it is the coming together of small aggregates of centralization of capital to form huge enterprises located in a few centres around the globe. capital Anarchy of In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of capitalist production, with each production individual productive unit making production decisions on the basis of maximizing profit. For this reason, production cannot be planned, which leads inevitably to the crisis of overproduction. Crisis of In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of the anarchy of production in all overproduction capitalist societies. As individual productive units compete in the marketplace in an attempt to maximize profits, there will ultimately overproduction of goods. Capital tries to solve the problem in a variety of ways, but the crisis keeps recurring. Financialization The tendency of advanced capitalist economies to become dominated by the financial sector Laissez-faire An early stage of capitalism, when free enterprise still dominated, there were many capitalism small or medium-sized productive units, and there was a minimum state intervention to control the worst excesses of capital. Welfare state A form of capitalism in which governments played an increasing role in economic affairs, the public sector and social safety net expanded, and there was general 12 economic prosperity for large numbers of working people. Most developed capitalist economies developed this form following World War II until the 1970s. Imperialism The global stage of capitalism in which large monopolies come to control the economy, and capital - rather than commodities - becomes the primary export. Transnational Large capitalist monopolies, national in their capital, but international in the sphere of corporations economic activity due to the export of capital. Such companies generally conduct at least 25 percent of their business outside of their own country. Nation It embodies the notion of a group of people living within a geographical boundary who share a common language, culture and history. Capitalism An economic system in which all production is subordinated to the needs of those who own the productive units. Economy – a network of organisations and individuals that produce goods and services necessary to sustain a population – is among the most important social institutions, yet most of us seldom consider its structure and the relationships of power that it creates. We accept it as natural and do not question inequalities that it creates. This week we look at the economy and work and challenge our assumptions about them. Capitalism  based on private ownership of the means of production (land, raw materials, factories, machines)  Capitalists and workers are involved in relationships of unequal, legally free, but economically coercive exchange (capitalists control the means of production, workers have no choice but to see their labour).  Workers are paid as little as possibleand capitalists try to extract thmost amount of work possible in a working day.  Do capitalists buy and workers sell contractually specified labour or labour power ( a worker's total capacity for labour)?  Dominant ideology denies that employees care about their work (only owners care).  Goal of production: maximizing profits (surplus value) , not producing use value.  Domination of market and money as means of distribution. Industrialisation  Dominant form of organizing production in capitalism; enabled the establishment of capitalism in the end of the feudalism era  Use of new forms of energy: water, stream, internal combustion, nuclear ("manufactory production" uses only human and animal energy).  Machine technology  Large-scale (mass) production  Increasingly detailed division of labour, therefore increasing use of unqualified, cheap labour: women and children 13  Increasing productivity of labour : the amount of goods a worker produces in a unit of time. Productivity of work Early / family capitalism  Sugiman: (SCP) family capitalism  Naiman: (HSW) free enterprise/laissez-faire capitalism (state intervention limits the activity of enterprises only minimally). o An early stage of capitalism, when free enterprise still dominated, there were many small or medium-sized productive units, and there was a minimum state intervention to control the worst excesses of capital.  A large number of small to medium firms compete in a market  No buyer or seller can significantly influence prices by withdrawing from the market  "Honesty is the best policy." o This phrase is only true in early capitalism and only true because the market is so small. o Industrial espionage - trying to learn others' trade secrets  Attempts to maximize profit cause anarchy of production, which causes periodic crisis of hyper-production (overproduction) o Anarchy of production - In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of capitalist production, with each individual productive unit making production decisions on the basis of maximizing profit. For this reason, production cannot be planned, which leads inevitably to the crisis of overproduction. o Crisis of hyper-production - In Marxist terminology, an inevitable consequence of the anarchy of production in all capitalist societies. As individual productive units compete in the marketplace in an attempt to maximize profits, there will ultimately overproduction of goods. Capital tries to solve the problem in a variety of ways, but the crisis keeps recurring.  Free enterprise capitalism inevitable leads tconcentration of ownership (monopolization). Crises of hyperproduction Concentration of ownership Corporate / monopoly capitalism  Naiman: monopoly Capitalism - Prof does not like it.  A corporation is alegal entity (Naiman: legal fiction) distinct from the people who one or control it. Invented foprotection of owners from poor economic performance.  Concentration of ownership continues: increased size and decreased number of enterprises. Financialization o Comes because of concentration of ownership  Monopoly: a sole seller of a commodity in a market  Oligopoly: several sellers of a commodity in a market; correctly described the market in most societies. 14  Monopsony: a sole buyer of a commodity in a market  Oligopsony: several buyers of a commodity in a market  Monopoly rent: increased price an enterprise can charge because of its monopolistic position  Transnational corporations (TNCs): force a"race to the bottom" in a globalized economy; Sectors of the economy: Primary: resource industry  Usually high proportion of the primary sector in Canada. o Advantages: o Disadvantages: Primary sector in the economy is limited; Can be unstable Secondary: manufacturing  Branch factories are numerous in Canadian manufacturing; owned by American companies, which makes it unstable. Tertiary: services  Canada became a post-industrial society in the early 1980s: more than 50% of the labour force is employed in services Social reproduction: unpaid household work (remember Marxist feminists). Work in Post-industrial Society  Daniel Bell, 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: technology will eliminate repetitive and hard work, and increase highly-skilled, knowledge-based work.  In the past several decades, there has beenpolarisation of the service sector into high- skilled "knowledge" jobs, and low-skilled jobs in the "hamburger" economy  Both groups are growing , but thenumber of low-skilled jobs is much higher  Ungar: Knowledge economy results inignorance society. Knowledge economy: depends on your ability to create knowledge; Knowledge is information which has been integrated and fully understood into your previous knowledge Ignorance society Technology and the Service Industry  Information technology is used to reorganize work and improve a firm's productivity and effciency  Management often uses computers to control employees and increase intensity of work; o To increase productivity you are working smarter o To increase intensity of work you are not taking a break, you are working harder  Telecommunication enables the globalization of work; enables the company from areas of high labour costs to areas of low labour costs; thus depressing the labour costs in countries like Canada 15 Productivity paradox: overall productivity in Canada has been growing more slowly after implementation of computer technology in the 1970s than before. Quality of Work Measure quality of work by measuring two kinds of rewards:  Extrinsic rewards: high wages, benefits, employment security, and opportunities for advancement.  Intrinsic rewards: challenging non-repetitive work, decision-making, and autonomy (self- direction and responsibility over work tasks).  Sugiman: Most people "find meaning" in work.  Routine service, white-collar work:  White Collar Holler by Stan Rogers - Flexible/Precarious/Non-Standard Work Flexibility comes in two forms: Numerical flexibility: shrinking or eliminating the core workforce (the permanent workforce in a company) and replacing it with workers in non-standard; minimizes cost of labour in an economic downturn; workers are at a heighten risk of crisis, rather than the company; Non-standard work: temporary, contractual (self-employed), part-time, and part-year.  Most non-standard work is inflexiblefrom the perspective of the worker, with low pay, no benefits, no security, no opportunity for advancement.  Non-standard workers may not be the cheapest, but they are easiest to control (Hydro One) and  The fastest growing type of employment on Canada Task flexibility: employees are transferred to different activities within a firm; employees are not fired and hired again; Managerial strategies: Taylorism Human resources management Total quality control Labour market shelters: Professions Unions The Corporation: Are Corporations Sociopathic? Callous unconcern for the feelings of others Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations Incapacity to maintain healthy relationships Deceitfulness: repeatedly lying for economic gain 16 Incapacity to experience guilt Failure to conform to social norms with respect to behaviour SCP Chapter 8 & HSW Chapter 6: Class and Stratification Class and status - class, also termed socio-economic class, refers to one's position within a society's economic hierarchy. Typical designations include upper, middle and lower class. Finer discriminations, such as upper middle class, also appear in the literature. In contrast, status refers to one's social position in terms of privilege and esteem. While often based in economic considerations, status suggests a broader lifestyle dimension. Status may be achieved (becoming a CEO) or ascribed (born an 'untouchable'). Power - in the classic formulation, power refers to the ability to exercise one's will, even in the face of opposition from others. In Marxist sociology, a social relationship that has a material base. Those who own the means of production have the power to exploit workers through the appropriation of their labour efforts. In Weberian sociology, power is more broadly defined and can reflect an individual's or group's capacity to exert their will over others. Contemporary analysts point out that power may also involve a wide variety of indirect and subtle manifestations, including the ability to mobilize bias or define a situation in one's own interests. Economic elite - refers to men and women who hold economic power in society. Contemporary researchers often operationalize this concept in terms of reported financial assets (wealth) and/or leadership positions on the boards of key (largest 100) corporations. Intersectionalities - recent analysts, particularly those working from a feminist perspective, have called attention to the ways in which social inequalities are interwoven in a complex fashion. Gender inequalities, for example, are influenced by social class, disability, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, age and immigrant status. Social stratification - The condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group; the structured patterns of inequality that often appear in societal arrangements. From a macrosociological perspective, it is possible to discern the hierarchical strata of social classes that characterize most contemporary societies. Meritocracy - this form of social stratification relies on differences in effort and ability rather than ascribed statuses such as gender, age or race. Bourgeoisie - the owning class Proletariat - the working class Means of production - their access to tools, factories, land and investment capital used to produce wealth. Class consciousness - the sense of membership in a social class. For Marx, the working class would eventually recognize their common interests and act in concert to overthrow capitalism. 17 Thorstein Veblen Conspicuous consumption - the purchasing of goods and services primarily for the purpose of putting wealth on display.  Highlighted the symbolic embodiment of social inequality through the practice of conspicuous consumption and in his contention that most people want to ap
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