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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

CHAPTER 1 BOOK NOTES- SOCIOLOGY The sociological imagination- the quality of mind that enables a person to see the connection be- tween personal troubles and social structures The scientific revolution- 1550- encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the working of society must be based on solid evidence, not just speculation Democratic revolution-1750- suggested ppl are responsible for organizing society + that human intervention can therefore solve social problems Industrial revolution- often regarded as the most important event in the world history since the development of agriculture + cities, refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in britain in the 1780s. it involved the largest application of science + technology processes, cre- ation of factories,+ formation of working class Theories- are tentative explanations of some aspect of social life that state how + why certain facts are related Research- the process of systematically observing reality to assess the validity of a theory Functionalism- stresses that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social strctures. it underlines how social structures maintain or undermine social stability. it emphasizes that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences. and suggests that re-establishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems Dysfunctional consequences- effects of social structures that create social instability Manifest functions- are visible+ intended effects of social structures Latent functions- invisible+unintended effects of social structures Conflict theory- generally focuses on large macrolevel structues+ shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances+ social change in others Class conflict- the struggle between classes to resist + overcome the opposition of other classes The protestant ethic- the belief that religious dobts can be reduced,+ a state of grace ensured , if pl work diligently+ live ascetically. according to weber, the protestant work ethic had the unin- tended effect of increasing saving and investment+ this stimulation capitalist growth Symbolic interactionism- focuses of interaction in microlevel social setting+ emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requires understanding the subjective meanings ppl at- tach to their social circumstances Social constructionism- argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sus- tained by social processes that vary historically+culturally Queer theory- argues that ppls sexual identities + performances are so variable that conventional lables like male,female, gay, to capture the sexual instability that charaterizes the lives of many ppl Feminist theory- claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in detemining a persons oppurtunities in life, it hold that male domination and female subordination are detem- ined not by biologial necessity but by structures of power+social convention.. it examines the op- eration of patriarchy in both micro+macro settings and it contends that exsisting patterns of gen- der inequality can+ should be changed for the benefit of all members of society Post-industrial revolution- refers to the technology driven shifts from manufacturing to service industries+ the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities Glbalization- the process by which fomally seprate economies,states+ cultures become tied to- gether+ ppl become increasinly aware of their growing interdependance 1.Functionalism analyzes how social order is supported by macrostructures 2.The conflict approach analyzes how social inequality is maintained and challenged 3.symbolic interactionism analyzes how meaning is created when ppl communicate in microlevel settings 4.Feminist theories focus on the social sources of patriarchy in both micro+macro levels 1. Scientific revolution encouraged the view that sound conclusion abt society must be based on solid evidence, not speculation 2. Democratic revolution suggested that ppl are responsible for organizing society+that human intervention can therefore solve social problems 3. Industrial revolution created a host of new+ serious social problems that attracted the attention of many social thinker postindustrial revolution is the technology driven shift from manufacturing to service industries euthanasia- involves doctor perscribing or administering medication/treatment intended to end terminally ill patients life Chapter 2- HOW SOCIOLOGISTS DO RESEARCH Concrete experience- obtained by touching, seeing, tasting, smelling, hearing Percepts- the smallest bits of concrete expierence Patterns- collections of related concepts Abstract experience- the imaginary world of the mid Concepts- are the abstract terms used to organize concrete experience Propositions- are ideas that result from finding the relationship between concepts Sample- the part of the pop. of research interest that is selected for analysis Population- the entire group abt which the researcher wants to analyze Operationalization- the process of translating concepts into variables + propositions into hypoth- esis Variable- a measure of a concept that has more than one value or score Hypothesis- the testable form of a proposition Experiment- carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to isolate hypothe- sized causes + measure their effects Randomization- involves assigning each indiv. by chance Dependant variable- the presumed effect in a cause-effect relationship Independent V- the presumed cause Reliability- the degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results Validity- degree to which a measure actually measures what its intended to measure Contingency table- a cross classification of cases by atleast two variables that allows you to see how, if, the variables are associated spurious( phony) relationship- exists bt an indendant + dependent variable when a control vari- able causes change in both the independent + dependent variables Probablity- the units have a known + nonzero chance of being selected Field research- based on observation of ppl in natural settings Detached observation- involves classifying +counting the behaviour of interest according to a predetermined scheme Reactivity- occures when the presence of researcher causes ppl to change behaviour Participant observation- carefuuly observaing ppls face to face interactions, building an understanding of what motivates them to act the way they do CHAPTER 3 NOTES- CULTURE High culture- a culture consumed mainly by upper class ( opera, ballet) Popular culture( or mass culture) is culture consumed by all classes ( movies, pop music) Culture- consists of the shared symbols + their definitions that ppl create to solve real-life problems Symbols- are concrete things or abstract terms that represent something else-> ring on finger represents marriage-> the meaning of the symbols is not the symbol, the meaning is in what it refers to culture is composed of symbols whose meanings are shared among a substaintial # of ppl Abstraction(1st)- the ability to create general concepts of meaningfully organize concrete, sensory experience Cooperation ( 2nd tool in human cultural survival kit) the capacity to create a complex social life by establishing generally accepted ways of doing things + ideas abt what is right + wrong Norms- generally accepted ways of doing things Values- ideas that identify desirable states( conditions that are true,good or beautiful) Production(3rd)- the human capacity to make + use tools- improves our ability
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