Chapter 7- Social Stratification FINAL EXAM REVIEW including selected terms, lecture, and textbook notes.
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Chapter 7- Social Stratification
Some Principles of Stratification- Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore. Response
by Melvin Tumin.
Stratification is a functional necessity. Occurs because some social positions
are more important to social system than others and such, some are values
and rewarded differently.
Tumin suggests that social stratification may be dysfunctional for society.
Stratification-precisely requirement faced by any society of placing and
motivating individuals in social structure.
Rewards are built into position. Rights associated with position called
accompaniments or perquisites-related to duties of position.
The most important tasks in a society will be performed conscientiously by
the most competent persons.
Big Three of Stratification- access to valued resources.
Generally have 2 or 3 of them but usually we have 1.
Judges, lawyers, and Quebec notaries make the most income In 2005 $99
305 median. Followed by specialist managers, professional occupations in
Traditional Society- immobile. Modern Society- mobile (able to move in
Why do people make different incomes?
Different occupations. Aka complex division of labour/ social differentiation
Modern society more differentiated, 3500 occupations. Become established
over time, explanation of income- natural talent, effort, and level of income.
Mosca (1896)- studied social elites. “The Ruling Class”- inequality is
inevitable bc of politics. It coordinates the society. Politics-
causes/establishes inequality of opportunities and power.
Coordinated/interact- what goals we should strive for.
Feathering your own rest- look after themselves.
Michel- idea to explain inequality called Iron Law of Oligarchy- dictation of
group of people running society, putting money in their own pockets.
Pareto- people are self interested, applies to business, politics, and students
in school. Ex. Maximize your interest by going to school (and talents).
Mosca called Pareto, cynic- pessimistic view.
Explanations of Income Inequality-
Factors in economic success:
a) Degree of natural talent
b) Degree of effort
c) Level of education
Social Capital- people’s networks or connections.
Cultural Capital- learning and skills that increase chance of securing a
Importance of education affects economic success, stressed by human
Human Capital- sum of useful skills and knowledge than a person has.
Link between schooling and income levels.
Distribution of Total Market Income among Families in 1951- 2005.
Class system has stayed the same since 1951- of top to bottom (lower class)
5 ranks. And income has stayed the same. Although income of families has
increased from $25 000 to $75 000 over the years. This shows how unequal
wealth is divided.
Social Mobility- refers to dynamics of system of inequality. Movement of up
or down in stratification system.
Movement is reflected upon:
a) Intragenerational mobility- comparing first job with current one. During
a person’s lifetime ex) leave highschool then go to work in a factory for
5 years (semi skilled worker) become atomic physicist.
b) Intergenerational mobility- comparing occupations of parents with their
c) Upward intra(within) mobility- removes talented people from the
underclass such as young people called co optation. Long been
practiced by elite people with power and authority to keep political
discontent under control.
Mobility studies- examine how people move up and how others move down.
Social stratification- the way society is organized in layers or strata. Way of
ranking people eg) kids at school know which kids are poor.
Ascription based stratification system- what rank you have depends on
characteristics a person is born with. Mentorship to a demo-group
Achievement based stratification system- what rank depends on person’s