1934, benedict suggested normality and abnormality are not universal. Belief has been strong that patients present symptoms, those symptoms can be categorized and implicitly, the sane are distinguishable from the insane. Psychiatric diagnoses, in this view, are in the minds of observers and are not valid summaries of characteristics displayed by the observed. You place a sane person in a psychiatric hospital, and observe. If he is found sane, if so how. If the pseudopatients were always detected, there would be evidence that a sane individual can be spotted from the insane context in which he is found. If pseudopatient not detected, outcome would support the view that psychiatric diagnosis betrays little about the patient but much about the environment in which an observer finds him. 8 sane people admited to 12 different hospitals. zky the same sex, but unfamiliar voice. (such symptoms are alleged to arise from. Falsified only name, vocation and employment and nothing else.