SOCB43 – CLASS 1 WAS CANCEELLED
CLASS 2- 16 JANUARY, 2013
o Understand the modern world – that is the main question
o Weber begin talking about capitalism and bureaucracy
o bureaucracy is the main aspect of the modern society
o born in 1864, oldest of 7 children , father was a big shot on political life , mother
came from literally cultural class, family having intellectual family
o not a great student, but did like to read..
o he joined the military, after university, became close to aunt and uncle ,
encouraging of his family , he fell in love with there daughter .. got engaged, but
later they had to break that off
o he moved back to berlin, with his parents, student , lawyer and a professor,
dependent on his parents
o he thoughts his dad didn’t treat his mother very well
o he work on roman economy , 900 pages books , build on historical research
o he was very focused , “munk” like a workaholic
o he got married , full professiorship ,
o thy had 0 romantic relationship , no sexual relationship with his wife .. until 40
o he had an affair at 40 , he had sexual relationship.
o One day his parents came home , he insulted his father asked him to get out of the
house, next year his dad died ,, he had a mental break down for 5 years
o He gather meetings and began to write methodologies
o Then ww1 started, he wanted germans to win, ( great and wonderful war)
o End of life- science of vocation and – Christianity, budhism, Hinduism – how
they create ethics and how that shapes our economy
o Died in 1920
Sociology as science ofAction
o Sociology is a science of action – understand the logic of society
o You have to understand human being doing things in referenced to one another
and you need to understand what motivates people , you need to understand what
matters to people , why people do things .
o Why are they there , for salvation , what are the consequences , you take seriously
peoples ideas and motivations , for power or recognition
o You need to think of the subjective meaning .. people doing things and why they
are doing those things
o Its true, people just do things .. Sometimes .. sometimes its because of your genes,
aggressive genes .. ( those are not sociological topics )
o How are we going understand the meaning of all other people ? so need a theory
of action ?
o What types of actions there are , so that you can go out and analyze the actions o What are different kinds of meaning that helps to understand actions
o Weber- 4 types of actions, these are not only the 4 types of actions .
o Weber said- put these out there, if they help to understand the different actions
o 4 types of actions :
o purposive rationality ( goal-oriented, teleological ) - beating some one up
to get there lunch money , its just about achieving the goal, you do it
without emotion, what matters to you is the outcome. This focus on the
consequence rather than the intention
EX: you are an engineer – rational way – of making a bridge to
cross the river , you just think of your goal.
o Value-oriented rationality – honor of the family, defending value ,
rational in the life of that value. If you value your family and some one
disobeys your family , you need to fight them . this focus on the intention
rather than the consequence. What is important is that you strict to your
value and you don’t care about the consequences .
o Affective- ( emotional) it is based on the emotional condition of the
person . EX: why you doing this : im just angry, just in a bad mood . have
to do with religion experiences as well
o Traditional – taken for granted , you do things because that the way those
customs have always been done , they are power full action which have
always been done
EX: ( fighting families from 100 year ( ramleela)
Weber saw 2 main reason of having this theory
o 1.Systematic typological distinctions – you can classify different groups on
these 4 theories
o 2. Historical development- change over time , of how societies actions are fading
away or which action are staying in societies. He saw this change happening
everywhere, in art, culture, rationalization has been the dominant theme .
Natural vs social science = huge topic
o can study of human being be a science ?
o we can explain something in a scientific way if we bring it in a scientific law
o need to explain the general laws of human behavior ( ex: scientific theory of
revolution ) law of revolution ..
o humans beings don’t follow certain ways that machines don’t
o in a historical situation is always unique, and it can not be repeatable
weber saw merits in both these points : positivists- scientific understand have to perceive
from generalization , we bring those cases in general categories, we cant resist that
pressure. To give up on that , is to give up on science , human beings can not being
understood by external behaviors.. we have to take in account there meaning ,and values .
when we understand people , we misunderstand them, by becoming the most important
person in the room. Understanding the motion of a person you need to understand the
meaning. In this social science can understand more about the world . people are deeper
than the rocks . social science can understand deeper understanding . o Verstenen (interpretative) is to understand people motivation. You need to enter
them somehow. You need to get inside there mind set.
o 1. Direct interpretation: seeing the world the way they see it
o 2. Explanation: once you got the interpretation, you need to explain it ;
why do they think that , ex: certain type of people will do these certain
things .. people do things differently ( we try to get explanations from
o people get motivated into profits – only when doing that beings a moral
vision. ( doing that is good ) what are the consequences is modernity . this
is the general explanation
o sociology in regards to weber have to be about action, interpretative , but it
doesn’t have to be particular.
o abstract construct which you can use , to help to investigate , examine the action
or type of action going on in an situation
o provide a baseline measurement stick , determine similarities and differences
o it’s not ideal in the sense of moral ideal
o its not something we should try to be , you can make an ideal thing of a criminal
o its focus on the perfection , if you do it in a rational way
o EX: rational stock market investor- if its time for you to sell it , you will sell it.
You don’t care about values you will just invest if you will make money.You
don’t care about custom or traditional . you don’t care about emotional , you
don’t get excited when you making money and you don’t get depressed when you
don’t make money
o 1. Explain deviation from the ideal- we have our ideal and now we see what real
people are doing . how closely that the one doing closely proximate with the ideal
type we can see what is causing them deviancly
o 2. Examine causes and consequences of actually pronating ideal type – ex:
religion – you have the emergence of a new religion, they are not fully worked out
in a clear way . so people don’t act on that in a particular principle.
o Use to understand abstract ideas of beuraaracy
How did in understand these things to understand power
o Authority – dancing like chickens because prof told us to do it .. ( ability to get
other people to do things even if they don’t wana do the things)
o Its domination according to weber .
o Legitimate- people believe that the dominator has the authority to command.
o Why is it that people listen to other people – you except the legitimation of the
education system . you are bound to do things what professors ask you to do
o You accept the role of what you are in .. it commits you to do it
o It is based on the meaning
Types of legitimate (people accepting authority) o Rational –legal- rooted in non-personal roles that people have, established in a
contract . your loyalty is not to the prof silver , it is to all the professor.
o Traditional – direct connections to the history or heredity, personal roles
( personal authority ) ( chicken dance , my father did it .. there father did it .. so on
o Charismatic- this is when you listen to what people tell you to do , its because
they are heroes , profits , exceptional.
o Ex: Hitler is a charismatic leader, everyone under would be rational legal
o This order destroys traditional order
o When charismatic leader dies – what happens? You get church beuraracyy,
you get the rules and decide the next leader.
o Means inequality
o There are different groups in society and they cant makes things happen the way
they want things to happen
o Power depend on class – Marx
o 1. Variations within property owners- you might do the same tins but will not
o 2. Variations among property less- lot of people who don’t have property.
Managers are not owners of property.
o 3. Class interest -/- class action = classes are not communities. People who are in
similar in class same inters do something in a similar way
o 4. Status and class- there are factors in life, which determine in life. It’s about
your style of life. Your position in status groups based on the food, the restaurant,
the books , the way you dress in a way . The people who do the right way of
things are better and the people who don’t are lower. Status is about consumption
and outlook on life.
CLASS 3- 23 JANUARY 2013
Spirit of capitalism
capitalism- creating profit in a society
the life orientation behind capitalism, why are people trying to make money, there
is a morality
what is the spirit ?
Protestant Ethic helps us understand the spirit
is a movement in Christianity which emerged in 60 century by Luther , it had the
idea that every individual can have excess to god, you don’t have to go to the
priest, you can have excess to god by not going to priest or church.
Protestant Ethic- its way of life, it’s a practice. Weber questions: what happens to
people who actually live there life that way. What happens to them?
Religions idea- ethics- spirit- capitalism
Spirit of capitalism 1. What is the spirit of capitalism?
Key feature of this is that industriousness is a manual duty
Don’t be ideal , always be sure , always everyone see you as a productive person
in a community.
There is no escape, you are a hardworking person
Weber said – modern vs adventure capitalism
o Modern capitalism – its not just about rich people or big business.
The key is that there is a massive society, doing what they can , in a
methodology , doing things in a systematic way, everyone trying to
work hard , not hitting the lottery. This is a new idea, most of the
society is doing that , and holding this trend. Weber wanted to know
where this idea came from ..?
o Adventure- we always had this ; its find out capitalism which deals
2. why to care about spirit of capitalism ?
Ideal vs material – pg 60 – where are these ideals arising from? Ideal side does play an
Modern Capitalism did not emerge the rich; they were the first people who started
to work in a systematic way. They didn’t come form rich backgrounds. The spirit of
capitalism is not only based on materialism. It had to depend on the spirit on the
ideals. Modern Capitalism was historically considered bad. The point of work was to
stop working , and then you get other people work for you.
3. Where does spirit of capitalism come from?
It comes from rationalism,
Science- You hire a consultant, he will study your business, implying scientific
thinking to make your business more profitable.
Quantitative – you have numbers, you can see what numbers you are using, you
can monitor your activity in a systematic manner
4. Where does rationalism comes from?
Weber answers- he said it comes form religion, it came from west, from protestant.
The rise of new religious movement, people accepting rationalization and the spirit
1. What is Protestant Ethic?
1.Asceticism- self denial, you are denying yourself form pleasure, you control
your body, you fast, you don’t eat, you think of pleasure as a sin . these people
are saints. the only pleasure which you are allowed. Sex is only for making
babies. Sports is bad.
o It is a classic system of monks , protestant believer understands and live
his life in a asceticism way
2.State of grace-angels walking among us. You can’t be sure if you are in an
allect. How do you know if you are allect ? the answer come from testifying to
3.Testifying to belief- no single act can get you to heaven. You have to be good,
pure in every single aspect of your life. It cant just be at church it has to be everywhere, homes , friends, work everywhere . ( its not like if you do one th