Ethnicity Msl nts

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mc Kinon

Chapter 10: Race & Ethnicity Defining Race and Ethnicity The Great Britain Robbery N Most distinguished scientist Dr.Samuel George Merton believed that the bigger the brain, the smarter the individual N Measured the volume of various skulls,(by pouring shot into the skull till full, and then pouring that into a graduated cylinder) and then grouped the skulls by race N Found that relative sizes of brains was related to social hierarchy N Whites, Asians, Native Americans, Blacks in descending order N Seemed to show that social inequality in the world actually had biological roots Today, we know three main issues compromise his findings: 1. Claimed he could identify race by the shape of the skull. Even scientists of today cannot do this, and he is very likely to have been identifying them wrongly 2. Only studied a small random sample of 72 skulls that he just happened to have access too. They could just be unusual individuals, and the number studied was way too small to make a generalization from 3. Used sex as a way to bias his findings 71% of the skulls he identified as black were female and only 42% of the white ones were female. Since females are naturally smaller than males he should have ensured that the sex composition of the black and white skulls was equal. - In reality when comparing black and white female skulls the white ones were bigger - But when studying only males we find the black ones had bigger brains Race, Biology and Society ,]o}L]Z} Z ooZKZoZ^oo}}Z_ N Noticed that the blood in their veins was visible and was blue, but the suntanned skin of peasants did not exhibit any blue veins N They figured they were an entirely different species from the peasants N Conveniently ignored the fact that the colour of blood from an ar]Z} Z}L]ZEZZZZL[Z Canadian Professor Peter Sandiford (1972) N Conducted IQ tests which he claimed proved that northern Europeans are a more intelligent race than Eastern or Southern ones N Argued that Canadian immigration laws ZZ}o]L}o }l^K]Z]Z_L^ ]Z_} N ,oZ}}LZ}K^}}Lo]Z]L2_]L 9 Z]LZL:LZ L]LZZZZ]2ZZ; N He wrote that these few clever Asians had somehow entered Canada and were an exception to the rest of Asians. He said this discovery should not distract from the need to keep Asians out of Canada too The same Immigration idea was suggested in the in 1920s U.S.A when Jews scored lower than non Jews. Also in America... N When it was found that African American children had lower IQs than others, it was suggested that funding to inner city schools where many Africans attended should be cut back HOWEVER N IQ increases as these groups move up the social hierarchy N The social setting in which a person is raised and educated has a big impact on IQ 9K ZZK Z]L Z;]Z]}o}2] oZZ]ZZ}LZ^oo}}_
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