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Chapter 15- Families
Mommy Tax- Ann Crittenden pg. 605
Unencumbered- free of all ties. Committed to work.
Wife and husband with combined income of $81500 per year, losing 1.35 million if they have a
child. Ex. 30 000 + 15 000= ~600 000
Leviticus, God instructs Moses to tell Israelites..1930s, Full time women only 60% of men’s
earning.1993, 0.77 cents per dollar men.
45% of workers had to work overtime with no notice.
Invisible Inequality- Social Class and Childbearing in Black Families and White Families
Annette Lareau pg. 611.
How social class affects parenting styles among white and black families. Interviewed 32
children aged 8-10 and most of their parents to learn the types of skills parents transmit to their
Both races of middle class, tend to conform to cultural logic of childrearing she calls “concerted
cultivation”- enrolling children in numerous age specific organized activities that dominate
family life and create enormous labor, particularly for mothers. View it as transmitting important
life skills to children. Produce entitlement in children.
Poor or working class of both races, emphasize instead “accomplishment of natural growth”-
believe love, food, and safety their children will grow and thrive. Don’t focus on children’s
talents. Few activities, more free time and deeper ties with extended families. This encourages
emerging sense of constraint. Adults give directions to children.
Reasons for Divorce:
b) Bloom is off the rose
d) Marriage and modern stress
f) Legal reform
Decline of Traditional Nuclear Family
Nuclear Family- cohabitating man and woman, socially approved sexual rel’p and have at least
Traditional nuclear family- wife stays at home, husband makes money. Decrease since 1940s.
1901, 69% married with children. Others: married without children and lone parent.
2006, 38.7% married couples w children at home. Now common law families.
Functions of Nuclear Family:
a)Sexual regulation: sexual activity permitted, thus making orderly social life possible